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final review

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McMaster University
Political Science
James Ingram

Review 3 hr exam 10 quotations: identify 5 20% Author, work, significance 3 essay questions: pick 1 – first half 40% 3 essay questions: pick 1 – second half 40% -- General themes in course First semester Plato Aristotle Machiavelli Hobbes Morality and justice state of nature Virtue goals of political life Human nature violence and legitimacy The good (ruler) (slavery) just society Ideal society Morality and justice for plato: an absolute morality exists, philosophy helps you find morality, it is with the Gods, outside of the cave, outside of daily experience and need philosophy to get there. Aristotle: part of morality is to exercise virtue, we need a good life, morality for Aristotle is different from plato, Aristotle is more material, more imbedded in social life, not absolute, morality and the good is the telos, what someone is aiming towards, directing towards, Plato believes morality is ultimately right and applicable to all; one answer to what’s right Aristotle: morality is contextual, depnds on one’s direction Mach: one kind of morality exists only for rulers: political morality Mach believes in virtu, sometimes you need to do bad in order to do good, special morality for rulers and states Aris: need to be good all the time Hobbes and morality: we can be moral until we have a state; first its based on what we find good and bad in a state of nature before we are socialized – morality subjective In nature there is no morality that’s why we need a govt to tell us what’s good and bad For there to be order and morality at all, we need to all consent to a ruler Morality is what you think it is, could be anything, or what ruler says it is Plato: morality is keeping one’s convenant (in Republic) To explain justice, look at a fictious society that is well ordered ..justice is well orderedness, upright and upstanding Mach: to be just, you may need to be immoral Justice is diff from point of view from the state Plato: virtue is everyone doing what they’re meant to do, whatever your thing is in a justly ordered society Arist: virtue comes from being a political being – everyone can participate in by doing politics Our virtue is exercising this capacity On the other hand, aris is not an egalitarian: some ppl don’t have the wherewith all to direct themselves..and don’t have the natural capacity to be virtuous ie workers, women General human good is to do politics Macc: virtu is knowledge, a know how of when to use force and be bad, manliness, assertiveness, stand up for yourself Virtuoso: virtuosity = someone who is really good at a particular skill Virtu is a manner of skill in being good at knowing when to use your various skills Knowing when to be false: know when to appear like a nice guy while you stab them in the back Wrote advice for the French prince Hobbes on virtue: no restrains on the ruler, virtues that the citizen should have, not the ruler, the citizen who is the reader of his book His book is written for the subject Plato on human nature: certain ppl have diff appitudes, skills, so three levels, bronze, silver, gold Your nature determines what you are cut out for and the way you fit into society Depends on what kind of person you are Different kinds of human nature Aris and human nature: ppl are naturally political – because what separates us from animals is we have language and we can distinguish between things Therefore we ahave a natural vocation for politics Mankind is naturally poltical Telos: we all want to be our best, so we use our virutues to reason what is just and unjust Mach and human nature: ppl are greedy, want power Ppl can easily turn on you – disloyalty Ppl are not reliable, are changeable, cannot be counted on that’s why they need to be ruled Ppl are fickle Two types of ppl the ruler needs to be mindful of and thus need to be treated differently: two classes in society, the few and the many, the strong and the weak, the rich and the poor Don’t need to worry about the poor, just the rich because they want your job so you need to use skill Poor are more reliable Hobbes and human nature: constant struggle with one another because e
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