2xx3 exam review.docx

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Political Science
Nibaldo Galleguillos

POLISCI 2XX3 EXAM REVIEWNOTIONSDemocracyofreedom house US nonprofit organization defines democracy at minimum as a political system in which people choose their authoritative leaders freely from among competing groups and individuals who are not chosen by the government p 259 ToThe set of rules that establish who is authorized to make collective decisions and under which procedures lectureodemocracy has been defined by default what they no longer are in the past lectureoDemocracyequality oThe ultimate powers of the state are to be determined by the freely expressed consents of all citizensWho are citizens we have mechanisms that have excluded a number of people from gaining citizenship and having a voice oWe actually dont know the full meaning of democracy thats why we have adjectives to describe the different kinds of democracy liberal democracy participatory democracy low intensity democracy as in the case in many third world countriesThe implication is that we have no clue as to what the noun means thats why we put these adjectives in front of themWe dont have a clear understanding of what democracy is all about oConditions for democracySocial rights civil and political rights employment education pension etcHowever we tend to restrict it to only citizenship rightsthose are important not necessarily true The above conditions are also importantoGreek2600 years ago govt of the people for the people by the peopleTodays society cannot replicate this especially due to our population size Plato argued democracy should not have more than 5400 citizensoDemocratic country where decisiveness of elections dont matterThe United StatesPresident is not elected by the people of the US he is elected by electoral collegeWhy Because those who drafted constitution dont believe that democracies should be something in which people should be involved Does not meet some of the criteria listed abovealthough seemingly like it is one of the most democratic DemocratizationThe increasing rate of social participation in order to attain the greater equalization of opportunities and benefits Consolidation of representative democracy is unlikely without expansion of participation ie wide and open negotiations among equals about best use of social resources type of modernization most pressing needed and ways to satisfy them definition of what constitutes the public and private sphere patterns of centralization and decentralization in decision making etcIf we are going to talk about democracies we need to include all issues that are involvedIncreasing rate of social participation denied to many peopleOpportunities and benefits equal opportunity everyone should have same opportunity to benefitpartic in larger societyConsolidate as democracies as go through transition without changing society at largeDemocracy is unlikely without expansion of participation negotiations among equals include discussing what the most pressing needs of society and go about satisfying them and what constitutes private and public sphereInequality in todays developing world is excessiveOur society which is real political democracy has problems in terms of equality when you look at Canada where 20 of population has 40 of national income The middle classes take for themselves 40 of national income and lowest 40 population only have 20 of national income Liberal democracy in Canada has significant inequalityThe 20 of population of Brazil for example take 60 of national income Mexico 20 population of Mexico takes 58 of national income which one Mexican alone take 19 of Mexicos total incomeThere is inequality in the case of the developing world leads to something else leads to poverty and leads to polarizationsomething you arent likely to see in Canada or USA despite the significant degree of inequalityWhy doesnt this happen Welfare state that ensures that no matter how unemployed you are you have access to some livable income There is no polarization or radicalism you can have in other parts of the worldExcessive inequality in the developing world brings in great poverty which in turn brings a greater degree of polarizationLongestablished democracies consolidated in the context of a market decline in inequality poverty and polarization while in developing countries democratization processes are characterized by an increased inequality poverty and polarizationIn the case of developing countries welfare state came about Social solidarity in the 1930s we have millions in the first world to supply on soup kitchen and friends and families to survive during the great depression And then unlike today we have a much greater expression of solidarity after the world war sacrifice ourselvestheres no way you cant feel sympathy for those in the holocausteveryone wanted to help through moneyeveryone saw the need to pay taxes because it can be used to help those in need Taxesstate interventionloss of freedomNo one thought of this during the great depression or WW2 what did they produce was mitigation of inequalities in society it was no longer applied the post reconstruction period were characterized by full employment during the war everyone had a job And after the end of the warthey didnt mind paying taxes because they all had a jobThere is a huge unfinished progress in human rights income distribution thats not equalityBreakthrough coupsHuntington defines a breakthrough coup as a coup in which a revolutionary military overthrows an existing traditional regime to inaugurate a new bureaucratic and usually middle class elite in powerthe radical does not compromise with the oligarchyExample 1956 Egypt oIn Egypt the Society of Free Officers seizes control of the government in a military coup detat staged by Colonel Gamal Abdal Nassers Free Officers King Farouk whose rule had been criticized for its corruption and failures in the first ArabIsraeli war was forced to abdicate and relinquish power to General Muhammad Naguib the figurehead leader of the coupoThe revolutionaries redistributed land tried politicians for corruption and in 1953 abolished the monarchy In 1954 Nasser emerged from behind the scenes removed Naguib from power and proclaimed himself prime minister of Egypt For the next two years Nasser ruled as an effective and popular leader and promulgated a new constitution that made Egypt a socialist Arab state consciously nonaligned with the prevalent communist and democraticcapitalist systems of the Cold War world In 1956 he was elected unopposed to the new office of president He died still in office in 1970 from a heart attack Nasser was a consistently popular and influential leader during his many years in power Veto coups 1960s Latin America ex Chile In such a case the army confronts and suppresses largescale broadbased civil opposition tending to repression and killing osuch as the coup dtat in Chile in 1973 against the elected Socialist President Salvador Allende by the Chilean military These coups occur when the army vetoes mass participation and social mobilization when the masses look to the military intervene to veto and prevent the conflict from the lower sectors of societyoccurs when the army vetoes the peoples mass participation and social mobilization in governing themselves move to contradict the popular will or the actions of a ruling elite either from politically radical or reactionaryconservative perspectives
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