3Y03 - Exam Review.doc

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLSCI 3Y03
Professor
Nibaldo Galleguillos
Semester
Winter

Description
1McMaster University Professor N.H. Galleguillos Department of political science Winter 2014 POL SCI 3Y03 – Human Rights and Democratization NB: This preparatory exam must be addressed by incorporating on your answers all required readings as well as class presentations and tutorial discussions. Some of the following notions and essay questions will appear as stated on the final exam. 3 Sections: Part 1: Notions, Concepts or Definitions - Asking to do three things: o Identify – so define it where did it come from o Explain the Meaning – what is the notion all about o Significance – why is it important to understand this - 30% of the exam (each notion is 10%) - 3 pairs of notions o Pair 1, 2 and 3 (from each pair and choose one notion)  Answer horizontally Part 2: Compulsory Essay (40%) – you do not have a choice Part 3: (30%) – Include 4 essay and chose 1 Notions. Identify, explain the meaning, and discuss the significance of the following notions. - Tie things with terms and significance for both notions and essay 1. Truth and Reconciliation Commissions • Identify  Truth commissions sort out the facts of past human rights crimes and hold the appropriate people responsible for them. • Explanation  Universal jurisdiction provides still one more way to effect a degree of accountability for crimes like torture. o Retributive justice -- correct the perpetrator by means of prosecution and punishment (trials) o Restorative justice -- restore dignity of the victim to restore the perpetrator back into society. o Reparative justice -- its goal is to repair the injury suffered by victims. • Significance  Ex. Case of Rwanda can illustrate retributive justice in international community 2 o State itself unwilling or unable to prosecute those responsible for criminal violations o Early April – Mid-July 1994 genocide o 800,000 Tutsi murdered by Hutu citizens o Justice system there could no deal w/ 120,000 criminals o Gacaca courts established to try accused – retributive justice 2. Organic view of society th • Identify  Philosophers in the 16 century premised society as a living organism or a species - Burke  . Individuals are part of this organism and government is at the  heart.  ­ What is good for the individual is good for the whole community and  vice versa.  ­ The goals of the society are set by the state, which leads society toward  fulfiling those goals. • Explanation  Same way as person can use their arms and feet to protect they use to attack, society needs this too o The mechanism is the armed forces  Armed forces are like our hands to our body  Our legs on the human body are the replica of what society needs (workers • Legs – strength to exert force to use so constitutes working class or popular sector • Significance  Obama’s Speak on Afghanistan  “That…Our case is Just” o We are in Afghanistan to prevent a cancer from once against spreading through that country this same cancer has also taken root in the border region of Pakistan  Cancer – Taliban • They are people but referred to them with cancer • If someone has cancer has surgery to remove the cancerous tumor – someone has to play surgeon (sending military = surgeons) 3. Minimalist Democracy • Identify  supported by Joseph Schumpeter o Institutional arrangement or arriving at political decision in which individual acquire the power to decide (voting)  Competitive struggle for peoples vote • Explanation  no social or economic aspects included 3 o No measure of accountability, responsibility, responsiveness or representation o No measure of freedom, liberties or human rights • Significance  This is so because a minimalist view does not define democracy by its policy outcomes. o Instead, outcomes are determined throughout electoral competition. o Minimalist conceptions of democracy allow democracy in itself to be accessible to countries abandoning dictatorships.  Having democracy without individual rights, simplest form 4. Cyrus Cylinder • Identify  The first human right code in the history of human kind (2545 BC)  King Cyrus or Cyrus the Great was the first person to make and bring about a human code • Explanation  Persian empire was expanding and going under Persian King  Passed an era where people had the right to keep their own religion even if they were different than the King Cry’s own  Foreigners in Persian empire entitled to certain rights • Significance  Neither the magna carta nor the Cyrus cylinder can be constituted for human rights  Have to follow and organic approach • Rights only become human rights if they become universal 5. First Generation Rights • Identify  Civil rights or first generation rights are the first rights within chapter 1 to 20 in the universal deceleration of human rights • Explanation  Individual freedoms: right to speech, expression, thought, assembly • Significance  mostly would be adopted by western society as opposed to any other society o Also, in 1948 it was nothing but just a declaration o Many countries did not sign it – such as United States and Canada  They had better constitutions than the UDHR 4 6. Enlightenment ** • Identify  also known as age of reason started between 1660 and 1665 ended with French Revolution • Explanation  philosophers believed in growth through human reason and were critical of superstition o Such as, religion, monarchial and aristocratic forms of political authority th th o Framework for political transformation in 18 and 19 century Europe and North America • Significance  during the enlightenments we see significant changes within the economic, moral and political ideas o Such as the major debate so two strengths in political theory so the state vs. individuals  Do men and women exist to serve the state or does the state serve the man and women  Is state predator or is it threatened? 7. Negative Rights • Identify  Negative rights are rights such as civil rights and or political rights so individual freedom and right to participate in public affairs elections and so forth • Explanation  they are affirmed and declared in the face of any attempt by government or anyone to infringe on them o You cannot infringe these on anyone • Significance  Since they cannot be infringed upon, this what western society should base their society on o Human rights have no meanings until we put politics into the meaning 8. Humanitarian Intervention • Identify  the provision of vital materials (food, shelter, water) to at- risk civilians in conflict areas • Explanation  humanitarian intervention includes any international action – economic, diplomatic or military o Motivated primarily by the humanitarian desire to protect civilian targets of violence o Sometimes may exacerbate humanitarian suffering or it can exacerbate violations of human right violations • Significance  Bosnia – war in 1992-1995 o UN and NATO tried to use military threats and force and diplomatic pressure to prevent or deter the Bosnian Serbs and their supports 5 o May 1992 – UN expanded its limited arms embargo on combatants to a comprehensive arms embargo on Yugoslavia o November 1992 – NATO enforce UN-authorized blockade on these two republics, sanctions to reduce military aid to Bosnian Serbs to pressure them to make peace o March 1993 – UN impost no fly zone over Bosnia, 2 months later UN said they would shoot down violators  Trying to protect civilians o 1993 – Muslim Croat alliance fracture = intense fighting and targeted civilians  United States sough roll back previous Serb gains in Bosnian and required repairing Croat-Muslim alliance o Intense diplomacy and pledged US succeeded in March 1994 9. Reformation Movement • Identify  1517 New Rights: Conscience, Religion Opinion • Explanation  Freedom on Conscience – express your own opinion without consequence • Significance  Lead to brutal religious war – people are killing in order to make one religion dominate over another th o Not progressed from the 16 century o Concern of the individual apart from any other grouping 10.Positive Rights • Identify  social, economic and cultural rights or third generation rights, can also be called third generation rights • Explanation  22 to 29 chapter of UDHR allows individuals the right to work, protection from illness, right to health care, right to cultural life • Significance  The state has the obligation or responsibility to implement by enacting legislation and pricing the necessary resources o Western countries do no institutionalize them fully o Positive rights are the basic framework of social rights o These rights need to be developed by the state 11.National Security Doctrines • Identify  ideologies that legitimate the state’s use of coercion to contain social instability and guarantee national security • Explanation  National security doctrine provide a rationale for why it is acceptable and even necessary to respond to societal challenges with repression 6 • Significance  9/11 changed the way we think, the way we talk and way we conceive war, peace o We now think in an irrational, illogical and scientific manner o Enemy = evil entity o We now think in religious terms – influences the way we think and how we think of other 12.Pluralist Theory of Democracy • Identify  coined by Schumpeter o Dominated the literature in 1950s and 1960s (i.e. modernization theories) and have strong influence in “new democracies” • Explanation  accepted by pluralists, believed Schumpeter’s view of democracy as a procedure, but changed some of its assumptions o Especially view of democracy as government of politicians • Significance  The state acts as a referee by deciding among different demands made by pressure groups o Taking into consideration the quality of demands o Concentration of power on politicians therefore, does not materialize 13.Clash of Civilization • Identify  coined in 1980s by Dr. Samuel Huntington (Dr. G does not like him) • Explanation  the focus was on totalitarians and total war o Us against them – common today o You are with us or you are against us, you cannot sit on the fence – this is the totalitarians view o We are fighting other civilization that was to destroy us o Conflict will be different now – it will be Islamic, Hinduism, Western Christian civilization and so forth • Significance  9/11 we are at war with some Islam groups o Saying that this civilization is a terrorist group o Future conflict actually became a reality 14.Genocide • Identify  defined by the 1948 UNDHR a crime under international law comprising acts committed with intern to destroy, a whole nation, ethnic, racial or religious group • Explanation The treaty “convention on the punishment and prevention of crime of genocide” -- obligates states parties to punish and to prevent genocide where it occurs • Significance  Darfur case study o Three separate provinces and home to 6 million people 7 o Violence and mass human right abuses put the region on the international map began in mid-2003  Separate rebel groups formed and began attacking government positions in the region • Sudan Liberation Army/Justice and Equity Movement  2003 scored victories including one spectacular attacked on air base in El Fasher o Worst violence between 2003 and 2006  Government forces and militias had joint attacks on non-Arab civilian pops.  Government aircraft to bomb villages, riding into villages killing stragglers, looting, setting buildings and homes on fire and poisoning wells  Around 450,000 individuals killed more conservative view is 200,000 • Many to direct killing  2.5 million were displaced during the conflict • This caused them to die since they were displaced from home 15.Contractual Theories • Identify  developed in the Middle ages as an intellectual challenge to absolutism o Explained origins of society and government • Explanation  seek to limit ruler’s absolutist power through the separation of powers, checks, balances and federalism o Humans lives in a state of nature prior to the organization of society and policy  Natural rights existed and natural laws – supposed to be abstract rights • SIGNIFICANCE???? 16.Liberal Democracy • Identify  meant political equality, on the one hand it also meant little in terms of economic and social equality on the other hand • Explanation  fundamental flaws with more capitalism we have much more poverty o Capitalism has tendency to go up and down 8 • Significance  Since liberal democracy and social democracy finally reconciled the welfare state seen as a capitalist state injected with a dose of socialism o Still capitalism that has some degree of social consciousness  Outcome of this gave us the 1948 UNDHR 17.Welfare State • Identify  Capitalism caused economic crisis (1870 and 1929 Great depression) • Explanation  prevent a repeat of the great depression and WWII tragedies o Ensure a welfare of all citizen, not because the right ought to be generous to the poor but this was the only way society could be protected from itself o Much of world to become welfare state o The state needed to intervene to save the very interest of the interest of capitalist class o Trying to save the individuals that put us in the mess • Significance  Factors that made welfare state possible (opposite of what was before = war state) o Feelings of solidarity among the victims of the great depression o Empathy towards the victims of war o Extensive role of the state in organizing the economy and society during war times o Cultural changes: acceptance of taxes to support war efforts  People paid taxes because they cared about their fellow individuals o Demographics: 50 million killed in WWII  Few people alive o Increase economic productivity in post-war period  Fordism – fewer workers so more machinery comes into play and more productivity o Full employment/full time jobs o Rise in wages and salaries o Role of IMF in fixing rates of exchanges and keeping inflation low o Need to curtail communist influences on lower sectors 18.Equality • Identify  idea of political equality can mean the right to equal treatment or the right to treatment as an equal • Explanation  Granted in western democracies in relation to civil and political rights (such as the right to vote) o Has had little acceptance in relation to goods o Treatments of equality rest fundamentally on the notion of treatment as an equal  Each individual has equal moral worth and should be accorded this by equal respect in political community 9 • Significance  equality vs. equity 19.Empathy • Identify  seeing others like us o Viewing someone like you • Explanation  human rights could only make sense when men and women viewed other as also men and women o When we see other individuals person too – in other words, human rights depend both on self-possession and the recognition that others are equally-self processed • Significance – empathy is seen as the four criteria for something to be considered a human right o Human rights only become meaningful when they acquire political content o Without empathy so seeing others like us equal there could not be any deep meaning nor could their be any significance in political consequences 20.Enhanced Interrogation Techniques (torture) • Identify  torture in western societies is conducted in secret locations, never advertised to the public • Explanation  The reasoning behind this to get information out of individuals that may have information • Significance  Richard Calvin – Canadian Diplomat in Afghanistan o All Afghan captives that Canadian solider transferred to local authorities ended up tortured – even though likely innocent o Canada’s complicity in torture ultimately dissatisfied its military aims in Kandahar – instead of wining heart and minds, we cause fear to the foreigners 21.Instrumental Democracy • Identify  Democracy presented as an instrument as a mechanism or it is a notion associated with Joseph Schumpeter o Institutional arrangement – democracy an instrument to elect individuals to be capable to make decisions (such as interest groups) • Explanation  Schumpeter’s definition is a conditional definition, in that the meaning of the notion is only valid to the extent that it is subjected to the fulfillment of a number of conditions. o This is an important feature lost to those who have adopted the realist and simple democratic method while ignoring the conditions that make possible for the method to work and be successful. o Significance  These are the conditions: 10  A modern economy: societies at the stage of mature capitalism • Mature economies – economically developed, societies in which capitalism have consolidated itself • Democracy is likely to work where there is material abundance o Bring income, jobs etc. and standard of living o When Latin America says they have elections – you cannot just call them a democracy o You need a modern democracy first – you need to be stable  This unique requirement has not been met in Asian, Latin American are still poor during this development • You cannot have democracy if the fulfillments are not made 22.Substantive Democracy • Identify  23.Magna Carta • Identify  1215 origin of human rights charter of liberties o Written in Latin – language of ruling classes o French had the magna carta • Explanation  limits and constraints on the kings demanded early conventionalization of individuals not from the family o Ie. Limits on King John – judicial firmness  The right to be judged by a judge and the right to be judged by a jurty • Significance  political changes due to the magna carta the start of liberal ideas o meant political equality, on the one hand it also meant little in terms of economic and social equality on the other hand 24.Total War • Identify  the idea of us against them or communist vs. Western Christian civilization • Explanation  no more room for neutrality o You are either with us or you are against us you cannot sit on the fence anymore • Significance  there was going to become conflict in the world it will be not be conflict against culture but against civilization o if everyone was thinking modernly we would not have these issues 11 o Individuals have tradition and we must try to bring in modernization, modern behaviour, personality and economics  had to make people move to urban citys to modernize them o Simple – bombs them and bring them to urban cities (carpet bombing) 25.“Newspeak” • Identify George Orwell coins newspeak in this 1984 book • Explanation  censorship and self-censorship – there are only some individuals that can denounce individuals o We say peace but we use to achieve war  Ex. Drop bombs to achieve peace  Talk of peace but start war o Engaged in something that is coming more clear and transparent is that we are having wars without end – no particular state winning • Significance  When was last time US said victory--WWII o Lost in Korea, Didn’t win central America, Left Iraq, Vietnam lost – explains reemergence of national security Essay questions 2. It was argued in class that democratic transitions taking place in developing countries are based on a misunderstood view of the democratic method espoused by inter alia Joseph Schumpeter and pluralist Theories of Democracy. What does this democratic method is supposed to mean? And, in which ways does the incomplete understanding of the democratic method affect the quality, success, and consolidation of democracy in newly emerging democracies? Elaborate fully, citing relevant examples. Intro - The Democratic Method is “an institutional arrangement for arriving at political decisions in which individuals acquire the power to decide by means of a competitive struggle for the people’s vote”. - Democracy is the government not of the people but of the politicians. Politicians are professionals who not only live for politics, but also live in politics. - Misunderstood views of the democratic method are seen throughout developing countries. Developing countries (such as Chile which was discussed thoroughly) do not have the social requisites of a democracy, however they have implemented the institution anyway. - it is promising to see these developing nations trying to establish democratic values, however there understanding of the democratic method is a contributing factor to the ineffectiveness of their institution from a democratic stand point. Paragraph 1 (What does the democratic method entail) - Schumpeter’s definition (given in intro) is a conditional definition - The meaning of the notion is only valid if the fulfillment of a number of conditions. - This is an important feature lost to those who have adopted the realist and simple democratic method while ignoring the conditions that make possible for the method to 12 work and be successful. - The conditions of Schumpeter’s democratic method entails: 1) A modern economy: societies at the stage of mature capitalism - a mature economy is one that is well developed, societies where capitalism has consolidated itself with democracy. - Democracy is likely to work where there is material abundance - Bring income, jobs etc. and standard of living 2) Professionalization of politics (individuals of high moral and ethical standards) to avoid corruption - Some politician’s do not have good moral backgrounds - politicians should be independent of matters best left to experts (finance, justice) - Ensure the central bank is away from the politics so that they cannot interfere 3) Reliance on a well-trained bureaucracy, with a strong sense of public duty - The existence of a “national character and national tradition”. (A democratic tradition based on high levels of intellectual and moral attributes). - Find the kind of people who have high moral standards and developed over centuries that support this type of institution - First there needs to a democratic tradition Paragraph 2 (does the incomplete understanding of the democratic method affect the quality, success, and consolidation of democracy in newly emerging democracies?) - The incomplete understanding of the democratic method does affect the quality, success, and consolidation of democracy in newly emerging democracies. - Countries in areas such as Latin America, Africa and Asia do not have adequate or equal accessibility to material goods, or the basic necessities in order to develop a functioning democracy - Affects the quality of democracy: - a democracy cannot be strong in a climate where the citizens are not granted access to adequate material, intellectual, and moral resources - For example, in Russia there is a democracy but the quality of their democracy is poor because their people are not treated equally - some citizens are granted access to adequate materials, but others are discriminated based on their sexuality, their physical appearance, or even their political beliefs - furthermore, Schumpeter and Pluralist theories call for a high level of civil and political liberties sufficient enough to ensure the integrity of both political competition and participation – again non-existent in Russia - much debate over ther
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