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Sociology Exam Review.docx

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Richard B Day

Social Organization: Groups & Organizations, Bureaucracies people who are connected; have no 'collective goal'/'awareness of Networks: their membership' - no sense of belonging e.g - social networks • direct and indirect connections • grown in importance people w/a common sense of identity Communities: • Gemeinschaft: rural areas; intimate, enduring relationships similar moral values, strong attachment to place; grew up w/people closely; stable relationships (sometimes for their whole life); • Gesellschaft: big cities; impersonal, brief relationships; few shared values; weak sense of place; act mostly based on your own self-interest; Groups: • an awareness of membership (shared sense of collective existence) • defined roles, expectations; control & transform organizational structure: members • you know your role; you can control other members and other members can transform you. • Cooley: primary groups and secondary groups • Primary groups: small (family household, significant others, intimate relationships); face to face; regular interactions; very personal; strongly integrated/strongly attached; face to face interactions important to who we are, defines who we are • Secondary groups: larger (a uni class); less face to face, less intimate; may not interact on a regular basis; not as important as the primary groups; Organizations: secondary group w/a collective goal or purpose spontaneous (informal); • arises quickly to meet a single goal, then disbands when goal is reached. • e.g- search party to find a missing child. Formal Organizations: • deliberately planned and organized w/formalized roles and rules. e.g- bureaucracy. group of tightly interconnected people; strong positive sentiments for Cliques: one another; ignore/exclude outsiders; purpose is to raise status of clique members at expense of non-members; similar background and behaviour (children of same In school settings: class/ethnic background); once formed, cliques ensure that members remain similar; rituals exclude outsiders (e.g- greeting each other, ignoring others) popular; dominate others; defines group boundaries; what's Leader of cliques: acceptable, what's not; chooses the membership; charismatic person Inclusion & Exclusion: loyalty based on inclusion and exclusion; use gossip to keep social distance from others; leads to ignorance/lack of contact w/outsiders; allows members to believe that outsiders are different and less desirable SHIRTW; specialization; hierarchy; impersonality; rules; Bureaucracies: technical competence; written files. • domination of the office; rule of the office • government of office • most efficient way to organize a large group of people Specialization: different people do different things; division of labour; enhances the efficiency of work; Hierachy: chain of command (who controls who; who's at the bottom and top); the range and the limits of authority for each position; not democratic; Impersonality: impersonal relationships between roles, not personal relationships between people people are replaceable; personal feelings toward others must be subordinated to demands of office; cannot hire personal family members; treat your friends special Rules: rules should govern; apply the rules, don't look at personal situation; a written rule should provide an objective impersonal response Technical Competence: hiring people based on qualifications; guarantees that people are not favoured or discriminated against (nepotism); seniority (how many years you have worked for the organization); How Bureaucracies Actually Work: • work differently in different societies; for men and women. • don't match the ideals; it's just a concept • people defy, oppose or sidestep the rules or role of the organization Clientism: people usually form stronger attachments to other people than they do to the 'organization'; informal organizations; relies on friendship, acquaintanceship and gossip; The Flow of Information: not always work up to the hierarchy; shared orally, not written; colleagues share info via email, texts etc; Bureaucratic Personality: rule by office, undermines personal responsibility - refuse responsibility "merely following orders" (excuse) a concern w/mere survival of the organization - undermines concerns w/the quality Max Weber: once you start working in a bureaucracy, you become a 'cog in the machine' and seeing yourself in that light will just make you focused on becoming a bigger cog. "Iron Cage" - goal is to find the most efficient means to whatever ends defined as important by those in power; just follow orders; most of the time you have no say in the rules, regulations, decisions Bureaucracy is Indestructible: indispensable social formation because of its: • ability to coordinate action over a large area • continuity of operation • monopoly of expertise and control of the files • internal social cohesion and morale Only way out: self-employment Theories of Deviance Deviance: breaking the social norms Theories divided into two different categories. Assumptions made: 1) general consensus over what's wrong 2) most of us conform, only a minority deviate (deviants are 'abnormal') Robert Merton Strain Theory: • official statistics: crime is much more pervasive among the lower classes. The culture of any society defines: • individuals goals in life (certain goals valued worth pursuing) • approved means to achieve the goals (e.g-education to get a well- paid/secure job) • if people don't have the approved means to achieve the goals, they are under strain • there's an imbalance in society between the goals and means • mostly lower class people suffer between the goals and means Lower class and strain • e.g - education; less able to afford it; education based on the middle class values Criticisms of Strain Theory: • doesn't explain crime and deviance among middle/upper class populations • assumes that official crime statistics are accurate • Agnew's Strain Theory: two more events that lead to strain • 1. loss of positively valued stimuli (e.g-loss of $ to gambling/theft) • 2. presentation of negative stimuli (receive neglect/abusive behaviour, physical/verbal assaults) people behave in ways that Cultural Support Theory (Learning Theory): reflect the values they've been exposed to; they have internalized these values; most likely to become a criminal because they've learned that it's okay; Edwin Sutherland: 'differential association' • when people are exposed more to learning experiences that make deviance acceptable, they become deviant. If they learn that it's unacceptable, they don't become deviant Critique of Learning Theory: a circular reasoning: we learn from others but from who did THEY learn their values from in the first place?; fallacy deviance doesn't require special motivation Control Theory: • deviance can be enjoyable/efficient in helping us get what we want • why don't more people engage in deviance: social control. Social Control Theory: • Hierschi: focused on juvenile crime • youth commit crimes if their social bonds are weak and they are free to act in self-interested ways. • social bonds: attachment, commitment, involvement Self Control Theory: • people who are unable to see the long term consequences of their actions act impulsively and out of immediate gratification; result of early upbringing Criticism: doesn't explain deviance among those w/strong conventional social bonds; motivation to commit crime not relevant Social Constructivism: • Crime and deviance are socially constructed; not inherently criminal; all about culture; society determines what behaviours are deviant; • Nothing is inherently deviant; deviance defined as such by those in society w/power to do so • Behaviours once considered deviant: having children outside of marriage • Behaviours once NOT considered deviant: drinking & driving, smoking, wife assault Labelling Theory: • Society applies label "criminal" to certain people and behaviours • Once criminal label applied, it overrides all other labels. • Perception of what is criminal changes Deviance Amplification: • Attempting to control deviance makes it more likely • E.g-someone goes to jail, and when they're released they're unable to get a job; return to crime to survive, hard to be accepted by others (not seen as a good person), associate with other people labeled as criminals, resort to a criminal self image Primary Deviance: • Behaviour labeled as deviant • Offender often tries to rationalize the behaviour • Has no consequences for self-identity Secondary Deviance: • Offender becomes stigmatized through the "name- calling/labelling/stereotyping" • Consistently stigmatized people accept deviant behaviour • Process of arrest and conviction: person officially defined as a criminal; ultimate enforcement of deviant labelling What are Claims? • People are convinced those deviants are dangerous/irresponsible & their behaviour is contagious (homeless people, panhandlers) • No objective basis Conflict Theories of Deviance • New deviant categories are constructed by pursuit of group interests • Interests are in conflicts • There is no consensus in society • E.g- bureaucrats may identify new forms of deviance to increase their budget Deviance and Capitalism • Social construction of deviance reflects conflicting power and the economic system of capitalism and class exploitation • Disadvantage people are more likely to be caught and labelled as deviant Class and Status Inequality Income Quintiles (that's how we know there's an inequality) • rich getting richer; poor getting poorer • past quarter of century; income inequality increasing Income Distribution: • wealthiest: 20% received 45% of total income • poorest: 20% received 4.6% of total income (of the country) • welfare, unemployment insurance (transfer payments) • excluding transfer payments, the bottom 20% would only receive 2% of all income How is Wealth Distributed in Canada: • Top 20% owns 70% of wealth; Bottom 20% has 0% (Gap is huge.) Factors in Distribution of Wealth • labor income ("earnings") 40% • gifts and inheritances. 60% The Poverty Line • in 2000: family of 4 $28,870 in the cities. • 4.9 million people (16.4% of pop) • 1.3 million children • more than 50% of all since mother-led families The Working Poor • more than 650,000 Cdn's • 1.5 million live in working poor families, a third of them children. • more than 30% of families headed by people who were employed Poverty • income inequality Food banks: • increased by 122.7% from 1989 to 2004; singes and single parent families most likely users of food banks • 13.3% were employed Causes of Poverty: Decline of Social Assistance • roughly 1.7 million people receive social assistance Social Assistance: • single person gets $536 a month. • family of four gets $1250/month • single mother with 1 child: 1997; $16205. 2007; $14,451 Minimum wage/casual or temporary jobs Education • correlation between education, occupation and income • education influenced by class background (i.e-the financial situation) • other factors: social capital: networks, connections, knowing the 'right' people cultural capital: general knowledge/information; highly evolved impression management skill; ability to influence others; taste and aesthetics Davis-Moore Thesis: • social inequality is necessary (functional) • all societies have important tasks that must be accomplished • some positions are more important than others • people have to make sacrifices to train for important jobs • these positions must be highly awarded • inequality is required to motivate people to undergo these sacrifices Work and Economy Scientific Management • method introduced by Taylor (Taylorism) • work is broken into simple tasks, to make it more efficient/productive • tasks could be timed • separation of mental and manual labor (eliminating need for workers to make decisions) • deskilling of workers • alienation; don't find meaning in work Early Human Relations School • basic idea: "happy workers make better workers" (more productive) • promotes cooperation rather than conflict with the management to increase productivity; impression that you're part of the team (involved more) • make workers feel satisfied • e.g- HR management, total quality management, social events etc. Problem: • no real redistribution of power and control b/w management and workers • an illusion that workers are important and respected by management The New Technology • Braverman: deskilling: e.g-in banking, many decisions are now computerized (loan approvals); • Daniel Bell: 'postindustrial society'; routine, repetitive tasks are eliminated; workers free to think; they need more skills/knowledge; highly skilled and intrinsically rewarding jobs Technical Control • control is computerized, workers control and autonomy eliminated • e.g-cash registers can monitor # of customers a cashier serves per hour Numerical Flexibility • shrinking or eliminating continuous and full time jobs; part time, seasonal and contract work • 1975: 6%, 1997: 18%, today 33% Non-standard Labour • fastest growing type of employment in Canada • McDonalds • ready supply of labour to 'hire and fire' as the market demands • tends to be women and young people • low wages and few benefits Increase in Overtime • female dominated public sector (teaching, social work) • managers and professionals • due to: downsizing; fear of job loss (major source of stress) Flexible Specialization • multi skilling, job rotation, team working • employment workers knowledge of their jobs • increasing their responsibility • decreasing the need for supervision • no added authority for works Self-employment: Driving Force • large firms and government contract out full time work (to private companies) • the most significant change • 15-18% of labor force • in favour: more autonomy, less alienation • against: no pension or other benefits, long work hours, same earrings as reg. employees Professions: • e.g- physicians, lawyers, dentists etc. • had resources to define themselves as such (formally recognized credentials, degrees; claim expertise in that area) • control entry and membership through licensing, accreditation and regulation Labour Unions • strikes are rare in Canada • the Rand formula: the automatic deduction of union dues by the employer in a unionized workplace • Gains: • the collective agreement (wages, benefit packages, job security, anti harassment policies, workplace safety etc) • employment standards • unemployment insurance • health benefits • sick leave The Good Jobs • personali fulfilling and dignifying • jobs that are: challenging, autonomous The Bad Jobs • meaningless, boring and routine, rarely rewarding • people cope w/them through social component of work (gossip, flirt etc) Job Satisfaction: • most people report that they are satisfied • however majority of people report that it is stressful • they're not sufficiently involved, recognized and rewarded & their talents under-utilized • high rates of absenteeism, slacking off, pilfering • they don't want their children to do the same kind of work Lack of Viable Option • caused by competitive job market Sex and Sexuality Until recently.. • only for procreation in marriage; sexual practice limited (oral, anal, same sex, masturbation deviant behaviour) Freud: • repression and unconscious • sex at the centre of human development • sex and aggression; need to be repressed so society can be civilized • if you try to hide it, it comes out unconsciously; e.g- dreams • first person to talk about this idea • because society represses our sexuality, instead of practicing it, we send it to part of our personality (unconscious: beyond our control, not rational or moral) • dreams = sexually repressed desires • sex is a source of our happiness The Social Control of Sexuality • child-birth and social control of sex • effective birth control, more permissive sexuality • sex as a form of intimacy, love • total change of what we consider sex to be about Social Survey • Kinsey: surveyed 18000 Americans in the 1940s; variations in sexual preferences and practices; non-productive sexual activity; heterosexual- homosexual rating scale (continuum) • we are all homosexual/heterosexual; just some more than others (continuum) Laboratory Approach • Masters and Johnson • stages of sexual arousal (in a lab setting) • orgasmic responses conclusion: • sex as a healthy and natural activity; enjoyed for pleasure and intimacy; older men and women's sexual activity well into their 90s; clinical sex therapy Ethnographic/Anthropological Approach • different cultures have different practices and norms about sex • sexuality is learned, not innate (not natural) • many examples of incest Sociology of Sex • relativity of sex: norms, identity and roles; all relative to society and culture Functional Analysis of Sexual Activities: • prostitution: to keep nuclear family together and 'strong' (its useful; men have sexual desires that cannot be satisfied within the family; they need other alternatives/options) • sexual fantasies: to keep marital sexual satisfaction Conflict Theories of Sex • lack of concept of private property: dominance of promiscuity (tribal societies) • advent of private property: • increased desire for wealth • greater status of men • paternity and inheritance • introduction of monogamy and repression of women's sexual freedom • sexuality and inequality • people w/higher socio-economic status: • think about sex more frequently • masturbate more • find greater variety of sexual acts more appealing Social Meanings of Sex • socially constructed (not biological) • the importance of sex: we make it seem so important •
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