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8. Instrumental Conditioning.docx

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Instrumental Conditioning Intro Taking action  Classical Conditioning: process by which organisms learn the contingencies between biologically important stimuli and events  Instrumental conditioning: explicit training between involuntary behaviors and consequences, ex. (touch a hot stove = get burned) o the learning of a contingency between behavior and consequence  Thorndike’s Experiment: measured time it took a cat to learn to open a door by pulling the string in a puzzle box Instrumental Conditioning Thorndike  Measures the time it took cat to learn to open the door by pulling a string  Eventually pull the string; on trials after upon discovery, the cat would escape immediately when placed in the same puzzle box  frequency of the random behaviors that did not lead to escape would occur less frequently The law of effect  law of effect: behaviors with positive consequences are stamped in & ones with negative consequences are stamped out  rope pulling behavior get “stamped in”  access to food  random behaviors get “stamped out”  stamped in because consequence was receiving food  behaviors with positive consequences are stamped in  those with negative consequence are stamped out Types of Instrumental Conditioning Four consequences  presentation of a positive reinforcer  presentation of a negative reinforcer  removal of a negative reinforcer  removal of a positive reinforcer Reward Training  presentation of a positive reinforcer following a response  familiar with & increases behavior dog with treat every time he sits, behavior will increase Punishment  presentation of negative reinforce  leads to decrease in behavior being reinforced every time you place coins in machine, you get shocked  decreases Omission Training  removes the positive reinforcer following a response  to a decrease in the behavior being reinforced  wants to avoid this situation watching TV & teasing sister  turns off TV every time he teases  time out procedure Escape Training  removing negative reinforce  constant negative reinforce being presented that the learner is motivated to have removed  by a specific response, the negative reinforce can be removed which leads to an increase in behavior  Specific behavior is followed by a specific consequence Acquisition & Shaping Contingencies  Acquisition: an organism learns the contingency between the stimulus & biologically important events o measuring rate of repentant  Shaping: breaking down the complex response into successive components for training o Skinner pigeons pecking at balls  progressive stricter rewards  AutoShaping: rewords some behavior that animal might do spontaneously, whereas shaping rewards successive steps towards a behavior that the animal wouldn’t normally do. Generalization & Discrimination  Discriminate Stimulus: o SD response  reinforcement o S(delta)  response -/> reinforcement (not valid)  Generalization & Discrimination Generalization: SD -> response -> reinforcement  (adult) (politeness) (praise) Discrimination & Extinction  Extinction  polite -> rewarded; stop paying attention -> polite behavior goes unnoticed  extinction process which may lead kid to stop responding with polite behavior  Discrimination  polite in presence of authority figures; relatives polite behavior for granted and neglect reward of praise/attention  kid restricts polite behavior responses to the presence of original SD (parents) SD & S-Delta  CS (classical conditioning) doesn’t equal SD (instrumental conditioning)  CS -> au
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