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Psych 1X03 List of Topics.docx

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McMaster University
Joe Kim

Psych 1X03 Exam – Topics List Levels of Analysis  What is Psychology and why use levels of analysis?  Learning o behaviourism in particular  Cognition o use of models  Neuroscience o Reductionism o Neuroimaging  Social Psychology  Evolution  Development o habituation  How levels of analysis can be used to study depression? Research Methods I/II  The scientific method  Testing your Hypothesis o Anecdotal evidence  Why is it bad? o Experiments  independent/dependant variables  within subjects  practice effects  between subjects  confounding variables  why limited sampling is bad  reason for random selection / random assortment  experimental/control groups  subject biases  placebo effect  participant bias  experimenter bias  single blind/double blind studies  Descriptive Statistics o Graphs  Bar & Pie graphs  Histograms  Frequency Distributions  Normal Distribution  Measure of Central Tendency o Mean o Median o Mode o Influence of outliers on three above  Measures of Variability o Spread  Standard Deviation  Inferential Statistics o T-test o P-value o Statistical Signifiance  Observational Research o Correlation  Correlation coefficient  Types of relationships  Correlation ≠ causation (Why?) Classical Conditioning I/II  Ian Pavlov o Famous Dog/Bell salivation experiment  Definition of Classical Conditioning o Unconditional Stimulus (US) o Unconditional Response (UR) o Conditional Stimulus (CS) o Conditional Response (CR)  Contingency  Acquisition o Rate of acquisition (recall learning curve) o Salience  Taste aversion of rats  Extinction o Definition o Inhibition vs Unlearning the contingency  Spontaneous recovery as evidence for inhibition o Discrimination Training  CS+ and CS-  Generalization  Phobias  Conditioning Therapies o Implosive therapy o Antabuse  Homeostasis o Definition o Compensatory Responses o Role of US, UR, CS, CR  Addiction o Role of environment and conditioning  Explain Withdrawal using conditioning  Explain Overdose using conditioning Instrumental Conditioning I/II  Definition  Thorndike’s experiment with cat in a puzzle box o Law of Effect  Stamping in  Stamping out  Positive and negative reinforcers  Types of Instrumental Conditioning o Reward training o Omission training o Punishment o Escape training o Time between behaviour and consequence vs effectiveness of conditioning  Acquisition o Cumulative record o Autoshaping o Shaping  Generalization  Discrimination and Extinction o Discriminative stimulus (SD) o S-delta  Schedules of Reinforcement o Continuous vs Partial o Ratio vs Interval o Fixed vs Variable o Four schedules  Fixed ratio  Variable ratio  Fixed interval  Variable interval  Know how the cumulative record looks for each schedule and why! o Effect of schedule on extinction  Which schedule is hardest to extinguish?  Difference between instrumental and classical conditioning Problem Solving & Intelligence  Definition  Deductive and Inductive reasoning  Functional Fixedness  Intelligence Testing o Quality of Test  Reliability  Validity o Some examples of tests  Weschler Scales o Standardization of IQ  Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Intelligence o Identical vs fraternal twins o Identical twins raised in different homes  Flynn Effect  Piaget and Intelligence Development o Schema o Assimilation o Accommodation o Four Stages  Sensorimotor  Preoperational  Concrete  Formal Operational  Biases and Heuristics o Confirmation Bias o Availability Heuristic o Representativeness Heuristic Language  Structure of language o Morphemes o Phonemes o Syntax and semantics  Language Development o Language explosion o Language comprehension  Segmentation o Universal Phoneme Sensitivity  Werker’s head-turn habituation experiment  Compare English and Hindi adults and infants  Age-dependence of cross-culture sensitivity o Social learning theory  Evidence for  No exposure to language (Genie)  Evidence against  Over and underextensions o Innate Mechanism Theory  Language acquisition device (LAD)  Accents o Foreign Accent Syndrome  Animal Communication o Waggle dance o Bird song o Laboratory experiments  Washoe, Sarah, Kanzi Categories and Concepts  Why do we categorize?  Illusion of the Expert  Limitation of Rules  Prototype Theory o Rips’ experiment on verifying statements o Problem – large variability in prototype over time  Exemplar Theory o Rip’s experiment on verifying statements o Brooks et al. studying the accuracy of skin experts  Development of Categorization o Children at 3-4 years old  Turning a toaster into a coffee maker  Knows you can’t turn a raccoon into a skunk  Animal Categorization Attention  Definition  Selection o Automatic o Conscious  Controlled processes  Automatic Processes o Salience and capture o Learning effects  Spotlight Model o Spatial Cueing Paradigm  Manipulations for automatic processes  Manipulations for controlled processes  Filter Models o Differences between filter and spotlight o Broadbent’s Single Filter Model  Shadowing paradigm  Von Wright’s shock experiment showing limitations of Broadbent’s model o Triesman’s Dual Filter Model  Breakthrough (Cocktail Party Effect)  Stroop Task o Congruent and incongr
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