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Psychology Notes.docx

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McMaster University
Joe Kim

Intro to Psych – Tutorial 1 Aubrey Mosher - [email protected] Experiments 5% (Optional) - Research Methods The Scientific Methods - study previous existing information to help them generate a theory - come up with hypothesis - select research method - collect data - analyze data to look for relationship between variables - report finding by publishing to scholarly journals - revise theories (to include new information) Testing a Hypothesis - anecdotal evidence: evidence gathered from others or self experience Using an Experiemnt - experiment: scientific tool used to measure the effect of one variable on another - independent variable: variable manipulated by scientist - dependent variable: variable being observed Control Groups - experiment contains two groups: experiental and control group o experimental group will receive manipulation - members of each group should be as similar as possible - within-subject design: maniuplating the independent variable within each participant to minimize the effect of external variables on the dependent measures o taking the energy drink multiple times on different tests throughout the year o issues: because the same participant needs to be tested repeatedly it can be costly and time consuming, also the subject may change throughout the time o practice effect: improved performand over the course of an experiment due to becoming more experienced - between subjects erpeiment o one group of subjects recives manipulation o one group acts as the control group - confounding variables: a variable other than the independent variable that has an effect on the results Sampling - population: group we’re trying to learn about - sample: group we are collecting info from - random sample: choosing a sample at random from the entire population - random assortment: assigning subject to control or experimental group at random to avoide any biases that may cause differences in subject group Conductin an Experiment - placebo effect: effect that occurs when an individual exhibits a response to a treatment that has no related theraputic effect - participant bias: when a participant’s actions in an experiment influence the results outside of the manipulation of the experimenter - blinding: when participants do not know whether they belong to the
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