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McMaster University
Joe Kim

Levels of Analysis 12/9/2012 12:13:00 PM The History of Psychology psychology is based on psyche meaning soul. 18th Century it used to describe the study of the mind. Roots in philosophy and physiology Rene Descartes - mind controlled the movements of the mechanical body, receiving information about the outside world through the sense organs. Johannes Muller - messages transmitted by nerves were coded as electrical impulses Wilhem Wundt - first formal psychology lab at University of Lepzig. North America was by Stanley Hall - APA (America Psychological Association) largest organization Structuralism: believed that psychology should focus on the elements of conscious thought and perception. Goal was to reduce conscious. Their data was collected using introspection in which experiments trained subjects to carefully observe and report their own experiences. Research focused on visual, auditory, touch and perceptions Modern Developments William James - functionalism: focused on what conscious thoughts were for, rather than of what they were made Charles Darwin (Functionalist) theory of natural selection - any evolved characteristics had to be something that helped the species to adapt to its environment. Functionalists were more interested in observing consciousness in the enviro and situations for which it had presumably evolved to navigate. Functionalists introduced use of tests and questionnaires to collect data on topics of interest **no way to verify accuracy of data collected by structuralists Structuralists were guilty if reductionism (breaking a problem into successively smaller and smaller pieces - losing sight to big questions) Gestalt school suggested that psychology should be the study of perception and problem solving. They introduced the principle of totality (any conscious experience must simultaneously take into account mental and physical aspects) and principle of psychophysical isomorphism (relation b/w conscious experience and physical events occurring in the brain and central nervous system Gestalt put an end to any serious interest in structuralism Ivan Pavlov - involuntary learning in dogs (would learn to salivate to a previously neutral stimulus. Watson: psychology should be the study of behaviour. Behaviourists stated that internal mental events were not objectively observable. Psychology should concern itself with behaviour which is objectively observable Anything happening inside someone‟s head was unobservable = black box Nature Vs Nurture (Watson) - nature does not matter and everything of importance is determined experience. We must consider both nature and nurture and how these influences interact. (take any kid and make them anything he selects) BF Skinner = leading figure in behaviourism. We could learn everything that we needed to know about an organism by studying its behaviour without a need to appeal to internal mental events. Any behaviour could be explained from enviro Sigmund Freud: trained neurologist. Psychoanalysis (the unconscious). He suggested that a large portion of our internal mental world was inaccessible to our conscious awareness. Repression was a way for the conscious mind to defend itself against trauma and conflict. Best treatment is to seek out the underlying unconscious material at the root. *For psychoanalyst psychology is the study of unconscious conflict and motivation Recent Revolutions Opening the black box - cognitive revolution Mental tasks such as memory, attention, categorization and decision-making are the focus of cognitive psychology. Sept 11 1956 Massachusetts institute of technology hosted a conference about mental processes Reasonable inferences about internal mental states and events was necessary in order to fully explain much of human behaviour Neuroimaging - connection b/w mind and brain Carl Rogers: (humanist psychology) believed that the human self-concept or internal self-representation was central to understanding human behaviour. He suggested that the mental self-portrait was a characteristic not shared by other species and work done by behaviourists was irrelevant to human condition Humanists argued that the goal of therapy should be providing a relaxed enviro in which the client would direct the course of the interaction. Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology Modern psychology brings to study the human thought and behaviour Psychological analysis: state our questions and look for our answers in terms of mental events taking place in our subjects. Make reasonable inferences about mental events that produce the behaviour being measured. Biological analysis: try to understand human thinking and behaviour by examining the underlying physiological activity. (biological point of view). We can develop and use animal models to make useful inferences about human biological functioning. MRI enhanced our ability to understand the biological roots of thought and behaviours Environmental analysis: enviro stimuli can influence behaviour (emphasis is placed on the strength of the social enviro) Multiple Persepectives Diagnostic: met diagnostic criteria for psychological disorders Behaviourist: identify and control enviro stimuli Psychodynamic: identify and examine unconscious conflict and tension Cognitive: explore thought patterns and processes Biological: effect within the brain and mechanisms Development: investigate the role of genetic predisposition and enviro influences at critical periods of development Evolutionary Socio-cultural: social and cultural background Research vs clinical: researchers work toward knowledge acquisition and clinicians treat thru therapeutic practices Basic and Applied Research Where basic research is typically concerned with figuring out how things work, applied research is typically concerned with figuring out how we can make things work to our advantage. Sub-Disciplines in Psychology Behavioural: links b/w physical structure and function of the nervous system and behaviour Clinical: assessment, diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders Cognitive: thought processes such as memory, attention and perception Comparative: psychological processes and behaviour across diff species Community: community service and development Consumer: marketing and consumer behaviour Counseling: not severe enough to warrant a clinical diagnosis Development: over the lifespan Educational: classroom enviro Evolutionary: adaptive value of psychological processes Health: affecting disease process, immune function and promoting healthy behaviour Human factors: b/w humans and technology Industrial/organizational: max efficiency and min stress Learning: how behaviour is modified and enviro stimuli to control behaviour Personality: identify us to ourselves Psychometrics: developing, and conducting tests Psychopharmacology: drug action and the consequences Sports: athletes to max their performance Social: social forces and group dynamics in individual behaviour, thought and perception Definitions: Behavioural neuroscience: relationship b/w behaviour and the physical functioning of the brain and nervous system Self concept: internal image of themselves, which is central to humanist therapeutic techniques LECTURE NOTES Introducing Psychology -Psychology teaches us how we think, feel, develop, learn, grow and love. teaches us who we are -think critically about a situation. Psychology History -Definition = greek work psyche meaning soul -how do we learn and remember and where does knowledge come from? -the mind controls the mechanical movements of the body and received info about the outside world thru the sense organs “I think therefore I am” -1800s an exciting period: electrical impulses in the brain. 90ft per second -different brain regions control different actions in the body -wilhelm wundt - -american psychological association = largest in the world today today more on brain and behaviour Levels of analysis -research = psychological, biological and environmental -psychological - what lies in someone‟s mind. how does it motivate one‟s actions. how emotions lie at the core at feelings of depression -biological = structure and function of the brain, neurotransmitters, genetic factors to behaviour. -environmental = social, cultural and learning interactions and how they affect behaviour. what triggered the behaviour. Perspectives in Psychology -behavioural, evolution, neuroscience, social cultural, cognitive, development -behavioural - John B. Watson: input and makes output. nuture over nature: BF skinner *black box model of the brain and behaviourism: complex mechanisms of our brain cannot/should not be studied, external behaviour should be studied rather than brain mechanisms that cause behaviour, supported by BF skinner -cognitive internal events of the mind but under the right circumstances. proper scientific methods can be applied to study internal mental processes that are necessary to fully understand behaviour. Models: abstract representations of how the mind functions. can be used to make predictions and design experiments power of models is that they provide a framework to describe data and generate interesting, testable questions. Biological perspective -Reductionism: all human behaviour can be reduced to the biology of the brain. understanding of the brain is incomplete -strong reductionist position would state that all human behaviour can be explained by reducing the problem solely to the biological mechanisms of the brain -overly restricted view fails to capture the subtleties and complexity of the process being studied early scientists resorted to drilling through the skull to expose the brain. modern technologies use less invasive procedures to look at the brain. neuroimaging! structural neuroimaging = physical makeup of the brain. functional neuroimaging allows us to see what the brain is actually doing Evolutionary and developmental perspectives -wants to explore the ultimate cause. ex/why men are more aggressive than women? testosterone levels? -developmental psychologists focus on how genetic and environmental factors contribute to changes in behaviour across a lifespan Socio-cultural perspective -how individuals are influenced by culture and interactions with other people. interested in 1 of three things: influence of an individual on a group, influence of a group on an individual, or influence of one group on another therapy for a depressed brain leads to change in behaviour -learned helplessness may be helpful in overcoming the depressed behaviour in humans Research Methods 12/9/2012 12:13:00 PM Intro Scientific method is a formal way of asking and answering questions about human behaviour to get the most accurate, objective info possible and sidestep the inaccuracy of our common sense beliefs and assumptions Diff questions based on diff levels maybe be asked - multiple levels of analysis The Scientific Approach to Psychology Newton established 4 basic principles of the scientific method Parsimony: choosing the simplest theory with the most explanatory power Natural Order: attributing the same effects to the same causes Generalizability: ensuring causes and effects observed in scientific practice are applicable in all situations involving the same causes Conservatism: support the current explanation until new facts accumulate that the current explanation cant deal with. Empiricism: knowledge should be based on actual observation and not on reason alone The Scientific Approach to Psychology II Facts and theories are related in 2 fundamentally diff ways. Use inductive reasoning to move from a collection of specific observations to a theory that allows us to describe how these observations are related. Use deductive reasoning to test our theory by making specific predictions about situations or events that we have not yet observed directly. A theory is used to generate a prediction, new data do not conform, and the theory has to be modified or abandoned Process of refinement is aided by collaborative nature or science Difference b/w scientific theory and „an idea‟. Theory is often applied to explanations - it generates testable predictions Process of Scientific Investigation Generate or adopt a theory: generate predictions based on that Generate a testable hypothesis: makes specific predictions about the relationship b/w variables involved in a theory Choose a research method: appropriate to test the hypothesis Collect Data Analyze Data: use statistical tools to analyze data to reveal patterns Report Findings: scientific community as a whole review all findings on a topic Revise theories: revise to account for new information **two important issues in order for a test to be considered useful: reliable and valid Reliability is the ability of any test to give the same output when the same input is entered Construct validity - ability of a test to measure what we intend to measure Research Design: Case Studies, Correlations and Experiments Case study is a detailed examination of 1 particular individual. (invaluable to psychology). They can serve to support existing theoretical positions Another way we might choose to investigate the world around us is to look at existing relationships b/w pairs of variables. (correlational studies) Correlation is a measure of the direction and strength of the relationship b/w 2 variables. Examine direction and strength (how far from 0 in either direction) Postive = increase and increase negative = increase n decrease. Zero correlation indicates no relationship Correlation coefficient = +1 would mean positive correlation b/w u variables Experiments A researcher manipulates one or more variables and measures the changes that occur in a second variable Some variables may have only 2 possible values (binary variables) Independent variable - the variable that the researcher will explicitly manipulate Dependent variable - measured by the researchers to see if their manipulation had any effect Extraneous variables (confounding variables) - researcher did not manipulate but could still affect the outcome of the experiment Control group - we do not manipulate Experimental group - manipulated *control groups are necessary for us to be able to see if our manipulation had any effect Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) - turn off areas of the brain. Create an exp. Group by taking healthy participants, using TMS to turn off and then give them a task that requires them to speak Science does not ever prove anything. Claims about causation are often inferred from correlational relationships Experiments allow us to establish cause and effect relationships but the amount of control in lab setting may deem the experiments as inaccurate representations of how things occur in the real world; emphasizes the need for variety Samples and populations Sample is the individual and population is the entire human pop Populations can be defined to all the individuals in the world that meet your criteria Maximize our chances of selecting a representative sample by selecting that sample randomly from the population Every member of the population must have an equal chance of being selected for the sample Random assignment when deciding o which group any particular participant is assigned Descriptive statistics are used to organize and summarize data. By summarizing the data in this way there is a loss of info but this is generally considered an acceptable trade-off for making the data easily understandable Three measures of central tendency: mean, median, mode The mean is the most intuitively understandable way to summarize data (average). Vulnerable to certain distortions in some cases - outlier (extreme data point) The median is 1 alternative that reduces the influence of extreme outliers in a set of data. Arrange our data in numerical order, select value in the middle. If even take 2 middle numbers and take average Mode = most commonly occurring value in the data set Descriptive stats are all based entirely on the data on hand, inferential stats will require us to make some inferences (educated guesses) Inferential stats are a set of techniques developed to asses how likely it is that our sample data are an accurate reflection of the pop as a whole Frequency distribution - height of the curve represents the number of occurrences of a particular value. Width shows the range of values obtained. Standard deviation as the avg diff from the mean of all the points in the data set Curve is a normal distribution often referred to as bell curves Lower variability is the more likely we are to attribute that diff to out independent manipulation The primary purpose of most common inferential stat analyses is to directly asses this possibility Less overlap there is b/w the data from 2 groups the less likely it is that we could have obtained the diff b/w the group means by accident One major advantage of the scientific method is that it has a built-in mechanism for correcting such errors If a new finding does not stand up to the test of replication, it will come under question, and perhaps eventually be discarded Those cases in which our inferences are not correct fall into one of two categories, which are referred as to Type 1 and type 2 errors Type 1 error is saying something is happening when it really isnt Type 2 error is saying something isnt happening when it really is Cant be sure what someone says they experienced was actually what they did experience Social desirability bias - lead people to answer questions in ways they think will make them look good, rather than answering with complete honesty Response sets - a tendency to respond to questions in a particular way regardless of the content Experimenter bias - personal expectations or preferences about the outcome of study, which can influence the results obtained. The researcher can also unintentionally reinforce a subject to behave in a particular way to support the hypothesis being tested Using blind and double blind procedures. In a blind study the subject is unaware of the group condition to which they have been assigned. The double blind study both the subject and the experiementer are unaware of the group assignment Researchers must be able to trust that other researchers are reporting their data truthfully and objectively. Researchers also have to agree to allow others to access and evaluate both the collected data and conclusions. Researchers also agree to not appropriate the work of others, and give credit where credit is due The principle of ethics in humans research is respect for human dignity Because humans can be so reactive, we often grant a small exception to the „fully informed consent‟ principle in psychological studies, and allow some measure of deception Respect the privacy of our subjects and to treat any data we collect from them in a confidential manner. Aggregate data (group means) Balance the potential harms and benefits, maximize the benefits of our research and minimize the potential harms LECTURE NOTES Scientists study info published by other scientists to help them construct a theory. This theory guides the creation of a hypothesis (makes specific predictions about the relationship b/w variables involve) Select research method, collect data, analyze data, accept or reject hypothesis, report findings Scientific community as a whole revise existing theories Paradigm shift - change in way of thinking Key benefit in scientific method - standardizes the procedure or research and reduce bias Anecdotal evidence - evidence gathered from others or self experience During tests - single experience might not be representative, personal might not represent others and cant be sure that _____ is what affected ____ Scientists use experiments - manipulates independent variable and observes effect on dependent variable Experiment contains 2 groups: experimental and control. Experimental will receive the manipulation of the independent variable while control will not. Compare dependent of both Within subjects design - manipulating the independent variable within each participant to minimize the effect of external variables on the dependent measure Practice effects reduce the control of our experiment b/c its hard to separate natural improvement from the effect of manipulating the independent variable Between subjects design - one group of subjects receive experimental manipulation while other acts as control group Confounding variable - a variable other than the independent variable that has an effect on the results Results from very specific groups of participant cannot be generalized to other groups Population = general group of people we are trying to learn about Sample = selected members that we collect the data from Random sample = reduce the chance that selections might be biased toward a specific group + random assortment Placebo effect - occurs when an individual exhibits a response to a treatment that has no related therapeutic effect. A form of participant bias Experimenter bias - researcher influences the results of an experiment Descriptive statistics - present info about data at a glance to give you an overall idea of the results of the experiment (mean, median, mode) Histogram - report the # of times groups of values appear in a data set Frequency distribution - distribution of how frequent values appear in the data set Normal distribution - with a characteristic smooth, bell and symmetrical- shaped curve around a single peak Mean - avg value of a data set Outliers - extreme points distant from others in a data set Median - the centre value in a data set when the set is arranged numerically Mode - the value that appears most frequently in the set Standard deviation - a measure of the avg distance of each data point from the mean Inferential statistics - stats that allow us to use results from samples to make inferences about overall underlying populations T test - a statistical test that considers each data point from both groups to calculate the probability of getting the results by chance if there only 1 distribution underlying both groups in the experiment Scientists require a t-test to show a p-value of less than 0.05 (in order words they can be 95% confident that a difference b/w groups exist). If p- value is less than 0.05 the results are said to be statistically significant Statistical significance - when the diff b/w 2 groups is due to some true diff b/w the properties of the 2 groups and not simply due to random variation Ex if p = 0.44 - person would find the result 44% of the time Double blind - neither experimenter nor subjects know which subjects belong to which group Observational studies - where scientists observe the effect of variables they‟re interested in w/o performing any manipulation Correlation - measure of strength of the relationship b/w 2 variables Correlation coefficient (r) - strength of correlation as well as the direction Correlation DOES NOT equal causation Classical Conditioning 12/9/2012 12:13:00 PM Introduction Drug tolerance is the decreased effectiveness of a drug over the course of repeated administration The features of an environment (enviro stimuli) that are present when drug is administered becomes associated with the drug effect. These stimuli become cues for a dose of the drug and trigger physiological responses that counteract the drug effect and contribute to tolerance Learning is a relatively enduring change in the mechanisms of behaviour that occurs due to experience. It contains 3 concepts: The mechanisms of behaviour - fatigue and motivational factors can alter behaviour. Latent learning is while learning is taking place there is no change in performance Learning involves change that is relatively enduring - learning should tend to be retained over time whether or not learning is being continually expressed in behaviour Learning is a process based on experience - maturation - there are behaviours that develop and change as an individual matures SECTION 1: ORIENTING RESPONSES, HABITUATION AND SENSITIZATION Orienting response - an automatic shift of attention toward that stimulus or event Habituation - a decrease in response to a stimulus or event as it is repeatedly presented w/o any consequence. Habituation functions to limit an orienting response and to allow the organism to ignore inputs that have become familiar and have proved to be of no consequence Dishabituation - an increase in responding that follows a change in the stimulus to which habituation has occurred. It is important b/c a change in a familiar stimulus can indicate important new information Sensitization - focuses attention to stimuli that do have relevance. It can be adaptive bc it prompts you to engage in behaviours appropriate to escaping a potentially harmful stimulus A reflex is independent of conscious control. It is for this reason that simple forms of learning such as habituation and sensitization are referred to as non-associative SECTION 2: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING A series of experiments led pavlov to conclude that psychic secretion was actually a physiological reflex. More specifically it was a conditioned reflex shaped by learning Pavlov observed that some of the dogs in his studies would begin salivating as soon as the research assistant entered the room, before any food had actually been placed in the mouth. Pavlov was quite familiar with salivation as reflexive response to food but a reflex requires some stimulus to set it in motion. *reflexive response = psychic secretion An unconditional response (UR) is a biologically determined reflex that can be elicited in the absence of any prior learning. The stimulus that elicits the UR is called the unconditional stimulus (US) In pavlov‟s procedure the US was food being placed in the dog‟s mouth, and this elicited the UR of salivation A second type of response called the conditional response (CR) only emerges after some learning has taken place. The CR is elicited by conditional stimulus (CS), a stimulus that previously produced nothing other than a brief orienting response. *the CS becomes associated with the US if they are repeatedly presented together If salivation occurs when the CS is presented alone and there Is no US present to reflexively elicit a response, it is considered evidence that the CS and US have been associated and the subject has learned to respond to the CS Evidence of learning occurs when the CS elicits the CR the same as the UR without presentation of the US Classical conditioning is highly integrated into many aspects of our lives and apparent in many species - adaptive role SECTION 3: MAJOR PHENOMENA OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING I We may have reached the subject‟s maximum physical ability to respond to the stimuli. Its also possible that we have reached the max conditioning possible with the given specific stimulus pair Acquisition is a gradual process that occurs through continuous presentation of the US and CS together Important to acquisition is the presentation of the US and CS together in time and space continuously in order for learning of the association b/w the 2 to occur SECTION 4: MAJOR PHENOMENA OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING II Extinction is observed experimentally when a CS is repeatedly presented alone following acquisition of the CR. During extinction phase, on each extinction trial the CS is presented alone When only CS is presented is also conducted repeatedly during extinction training Extinction is not the complete erasure of the acquired association One phenomenon suggesting that extinction is not unlearning is reacquisition. A number of studies have shown that reacquisition is faster than acquisition A second phenomenon indicating that extinction does not involve the complete erasure of previous learning is spontaneous recovery One possible explanation for the observation of incomplete extinction of the CR is the phenomenon of renewal. If a response is extinguished in a different enviro than where it was acquired, the fully expressed CR is observed if the animal is returned o the enviro in which acquisition originally took place. This has application to the treatment of phobias Extinction training leads to inhibitory conditioning Excitatory conditioning where what is learned is that the CS signals the presence of the US SECTION 5: HIGHER-ORDER CONDITIONING In higher order conditioning the established CS is now paired with a new stimulus allowing the new stimulus to become another CS capable of eliciting a CR In the course of testing, Pavlov observed that although his subjects would show a CR in response to the CS they had been trained with, they would also show some degree of responding to stimuli that were similar, but not identical to the original CS The process of applying what has been learned with a particular set of stimuli to a wider range of similar stimuli is referred to as stimulus generalization Stimulus generalization can be an adaptive response because it allows the learning organism to apply previous learning to new, but similar situations. However a tendency to uniformly generalize what has been learned does not always work to the learning organism‟s benefit Stimulus discrimination reflects an organism‟s ability to fine-tune its responding such that a CR occurs to one stimulus but not to other similar stimuli. For most excitatory conditioning procedures, the optimal arrangement is short-delay conditioning, where the onset of the CS occurs first, followed by the onset of the US When the interval b/w CS and US presentation is too great, conditioning tends to become less effective To say that contiguity is a necessary condition is to say that you must have contiguity in order for learning to happen. To say that contiguity is a sufficient condition is to say that all you need is contiguity in order for learning to happen. *if two stimuli occur together at the same time, they will become inevitably associated Contiguity itself is not a sufficient condition for learning The french physiologist claude bernard observed that every organism has an internal enviro that interacts with a larger external enviro. The internal enviro consists of all the body‟s physiological functions including blood oxygen and glucose levels, ion concentrations and core temperature The process of homeostasis initiates changes in behaviour and internal adjustments Stimulus discrimination can occur when needed Short delay conditioning where the CS is presented approx several seconds after the US is often the most effective method of forming associations Simultaneous presentation or delays over several seconds often prevent conditioning LECTURE NOTES Classical conditioning allows us to associate 2 related events Instrumental conditioning allows us to associate actions and consequences Classical conditioning - ivan pavlov = founder In pavlov‟s experiment the sound of a metronome would cause a dog to salivate (food) Contingent relationship: the presentation of one stimulus leads to the presentation of another Classical conditioning: the learning of a contingency b/w a particular signal and a later event that are paired in time and/or space Ex/ antelope learns to flee to cues that may signal an impending attack frm a lion - critical to survival Unconditioned stimulus: any stimulus or event. Occurs naturally prior to learning Unconditioned response: the response that occurs after the unconditioned stimulus. Occurs naturally, prior to any learning ** when a US occurs a UR always follows Conditioned stimulus: paired with the unconditioned stimulus to produce a learned contingency ** CS appears before the US Conditioned response: the response that occurs once the contingency b/w the CS and Us has been learned ** CS was a netural stimulus that did not elicit a specific response - pairing with Us, CS elicits a CR EX rich liked a girl named sandy, went to a dance with her, loved her perfume smell, moved away and many years later when he smelled the same smell he was overwhelmed with emotions. *sandy was the US which naturally triggered feelings of arousal UR. Her perfume was CS that became associated with sandy, CR was the feelings of arousal many years later The process by which a contingency b/w a CS and US is learned is called acquisition. Pavlov characterized the process of acquisition as following a negatively accelerating curve Rats have developed special learning mechanisms for food selection to help them survive. When trying new foods they try small quantities and are able to effectively pinpoint a specific food with illness and never eat that food again Extinction: the loss of the CR when the CS no longer predicts the US If contingency is unlearned CS and US would lead to acquisition of the CR at the same rate as the original training If extinction leads to new learning this would suggest that there exists 2 learned processes that sit side by side Spontaneous recovery suggests that extinction involves a new inhibitory learned response Classical conditioning of learned responses to a variety of diff stimuli occurs thru a process called stimulus generalization CS 500 hz tone --> CR fear and US shock -->UR fear Stimulus generalization adds flexibility and efficiency to classical conditioning CR can be extinguished by repeatedly presenting the CS in the absence of US Instrumental Conditioning 12/9/2012 12:13:00 PM Instrumental conditioning involves explicit training b/w voluntary behaviours and their consequences. Definition = learning of a contingency b/w behaviour and consequence  Edward Thorndike – studied cats in a puzzle box. Box was a small chamber that would open if u pulled on a rope. Outside the box was food  Frequency of the random behaviours decreased over time. Animals followed a simple stimulus response process with little credit for consciousness  Stamping in and stamping out = determined whether a behaviour was maintained or eliminated. Rope pulling were stamped in b/c it was followed by food. Random behaviours were stamped out  Law of effect: behaviours w/+ consequences are stamped in and those w/- consequences are stamped out  4 diff types of instrumental conditioning: presenting or removing + or – reinforcers  presentation of a + reinforcer following a response is reward training  presentation of a – reinforcer is punishment training  BF Skinner believed that when punishment is used, the authority figure may become a signal for pain or distress – may damage relationships  Omission training involves removing a + reinforcer following a response which leads to a decrease in the behaviour being reinforced  Removal of a + reinforcer =/= presentation of a – reinforcer  Escape training occurs when a response is followed by the removal of a negative reinforcer  Acquisition leads to learning the contingency b/w a response and its consequences – measuring the rate of responding of the new behaviour  Graph – flat horizontal line is when subject is not responding. Pattern of responding depends on a number of factors including the subject, complexity of behaviour and type of reinforcement used  BF skinner – pigeons playing ping pong. He used shaping by successive approximations breaking down the complex response into successive components that could be reinforced with reward training. (also pigeon- guided missile system in WW2)  Discriminative stimulus signals when a contingency b/w a particular response and reinforcement is on  S-delta is a cue which indicates when the contingent relationship is not valid  From classical conditioning – a CR was elicited not by the CS that the subject was trained with but also to cues that were similar to the original CS  SD is paired with the response-reinforcer outcome but the SD itself does not reflexively elicit the response. It sets the condition for a response by signaling when the response-reinforcer outcome relationship is valid  A ratio schedule of reinforcement is based on the number of responses made by a subject which determines when reinforcement is given  An interval schedule is based on the time since the last response that was reinforced (fixed constants and variable constant)  4 basic types of schedules are: fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval and variable interval  fixed ratio for example is where a pigeon must peck 3 times to get reward  on a cumulative record a constant horizontal line signals a lack of response while a flick up indicates a response is made  variable ratio – reinforcement is delivered after some random number of responses around a characteristic mean (slot machine)  ^ cumulative record may almost look like a diagonal line with no pauses  VR schedules that deliver more frequent reinforcement will support higher response rates  Slope of a VR reflects the set avg number of responses required before reinforcement is delivered  Fixed interval is delivered following the first response after a set interval of time (ex a quiz every 2 weeks – study behaviour is to cram near the end)  ^cumulative record with a characteristic scallop pattern  variable interval is delivered following a response after a variable interval of time around a characteristic mean. (receive reinforcement anytime) – responds at a steady rate – straight line on cumulative record  partial reinforcement schedule are far more robust than those trained on a continuous reinforcement schedule (maintained for a long time)  John B Watson – “give me a dozen healthy infants, well formed and my own specified world to bring them up in and ill guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist TEXTNOTES Language 12/9/2012 12:13:00 PM  3 criteria that outline a true language: language is regular (governed by rules and grammar), it is arbitrary (nothing about the sound of the word cat to represent a furry animal), it is productive (limitless ways to combine words to describe stuff)  Whorf-Sapir hypothesis – language may influence how we perceive and experience the world  Piraha language contains only 3 counting words corresponding to 1, 2, and many. Peter Gordon asked them how many objects were in each group – performance worsened with test sets greater than 3  Wyoming Arapaho Indians use a single word to describe any male relative  Korean language – specific words for mother‟s brother and father‟s bro  Morpheme – the smallest unit of sound that contains info. Ex/ table is a single word that contains a single morpheme. Tablecloth is a single word that contains 2 morphemes. Tables = 2 morphemes  Phonemes – constituent sounds ex dog has 3. D o g  Syntax – rules that govern how sentences are put together aka grammar  ^ex in French u assign gender to the words you say  semantics refer to the meaning of each individual word  MILESONES of a baby 1. 12 weeks – making cooing sounds 2. 16 weeks – turns head toward voices 3. 6 months – imitates sounds 4. 1 year – babies 5. 2 years – uses 50-250 words. 2 word phrases 6. 2.5 years – vocab?850 words  babbling is characterized by drawn out sounds made up of a variety of combinations of vowels and consonants  at about 1 and a half to 6 years of age, children enter the language explosion  language production can be limited by factors such as vocal anatomy.  Children who now had large expressive vocab had earlier demonstrated good speech segmentation skills as infants  Infant directed speech – the tendency for mothers to use higher pitch and exaggerated changes in pitch when speaking to infants. May help infants learn to segment speech  Very young infants can actually discriminate more phonemes that adults can!  Universal phoneme the ability of infants to discriminate b/w any sounds they‟re tested on  Infants demonstrate universal phoneme sensitivity: they can discriminate b/w virtually all sounds that have been tested on  In the training phase, an infant learns to discriminate 2 diff phonemes and turn his head towards the speaker – rewarded with a doll. In the second phase a particular phoneme becomes habituated by playing it over and over again until the infant stops looking.  In an experiment infants performed almost as well as the adult hindi speakers in discrimination task – English speakers performed most poorly  Lose the ability to differentiate sounds after year 1?  Accents are shared by the location and dominant speech patterns in the enviro in which an individual is raised  Following severe brain injury or stroke individuals develop Foreign Accent Syndrome wherein they sound as though they are speaking their native language with a novel, acquired foreign accent  Injury to Broca‟s Area suggest that party of the problem may be n speech production  Cerebellum is involved in motor coordination. Lack of motor coordination can affect an individual‟s ability to pronounce the phonemes specific to his native language, making them sound as though they have a foreign accent  Individuals with foreign accent syndrome sound as though they alternate b/w a variety of accents  Social learning theory – children learn language through a combination of imitation and operant conditioning  Genie was a young girl who was removed from an abusive situation at 13. She was locked in a small room and barely had any interactions. When she was rescued she had no language skills  Young children make interesting language errors that would never be heard in adult speech – overextensions and underextensions  Overextensions – apply a rule too broadly and can occur at the level of meaning or syntax. Ex if a pet is called doggie he may start calling every 4 legged animal doggie  Underextensions – apply a rule to a specific object only/ ex doggie to refer to only his/her pet and no others  Noam Chomsky argued that language develops rapidly due to an innate mechanism which he called a Language Acquisition Device (LAD). Although various languages may rely on variations of grammatical rules, they all follow certain fundamental underlying rules. Humans have innate mechanisms that allow them to understand and use rules which allow language skills to develop rapidly  Deaf children have not been taught these signs yet they sign in a consistent manner that follows grammatical rules  Young children show neurophysiological responses to the first language they are exposed to. Indicates that infants‟ brains are prewired to adapt to the sounds and their associated meanings that are present in enviro  Honey Bee‟s Waggle dance – when a forager is successful in finding a source of food, it returns to the hive and performs a dance to communicate the location of the food to other bees  Washoe was a chimp raised by scientists and taught how to communicate using American Sign Language. – no grammar  Sarah was another chimp – taught to use plastic symbols to communicate demands – couldn‟t combine symbols in combinations  Bonobo named kanzi – communicate using a set of geometric figures known as lexigrams arranged on a keyboard. They utilized complete immersion in language hoping that kanzi would learn by observation  ^grammar was limited with no understanding of nouns, verbs or plurals TEXTBOOK NOTES Problem Solving 12/9/2012 12:13:00 PM Problem Solving and Intelligence Intelligence - the cognitive ability of an individual to learn from experience, reason well, remember important info and cope with the demands of daily living Edwin Boring stated that intelligence is whatever intelligence tests measure. 2 assumptions made by psychologists: intelligence involves the ability to perform cognitive tasks and the capacity to learn from experience and adapt 2 types of problem solving: deductive and inductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning: concrete conclusion based on a general idea. Ex/ if I say its going to rain u can determine that the ground will soon be wet Inductive reasoning: generate a general idea given some concrete info. Ex/ if the ground is wet in the morning it must have rained overnight Arch of knowledge: at the base we have facts or observations about the world. At the top we have theories In science we start with a general theory about the world and then use DR to generate a specific testable hypothesis about the data we expect to obtain. Then thru experiments we collect data and use UD to relate it to our theory Sample problem: given a box of tacks and candle and a bulletin board. Task is to try to attach the candle to the bulletin board making sure u can light the candle without burning the board. Provide a solution. Functional fixedness: our difficulty seeing alternative uses for common objects Solution to the problem: pin the box on the board u can use it as a stand for the candle and voila problem solved. Challenge is to realize the box can be more than a place to store the tacks. Good problem solvers are good noticers 2 important qualities of a test: reliability and validity Reliable test produces the same result if one person takes it multiple times. Reliability of testing is an important concern for psychologists measuring any effect - it is especially important for an intelligence test b/c psychologists assume that intelligence is a static internal quality A valid test measures only the trait it is supposed to be measuring Does a given test actually measure yr intelligence or yr ability to answer certain types of questions or yr writing speed? The modern study of intelligence started with Francis Galton. His goal was to formally quantify intelligence in an unbiased manner. He recorded how quickly subjects could respond to sensory motor tasks by their reaction time. He equated faster reaction times with higher intelligence. Whether or not this is a valid measure of intelligence is questionable - but it was an unbiased and reliable measure Alfred Binet was hired by the French Ministry of Public Instruction to develop a tool that would help to identify public school children who needed special education He produced the first intelligence scale which included 30 short tasks related to everyday life. Lewis Terman further adapted the scale and it was renamed the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test Charles Spearman was a firm believer in the idea of a single type of intelligence. Saw that most people who performed well on classical intelligence tasks performed well on all kinds of tasks. Reasoned that it was b/c there is one generalized intelligence which he named „g‟. Later he was known to advocate that only individuals with a min level of „g‟ should be allowed to vote and reproduce Howard Gardner proposed a multiple intelligence theory and intelligence test. He argued for 8 diff types: verbal, mathematical, musical, spatial, kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic According to his theory, each type of intelligence is independent from the others Weschler‟s original intelligence test was modeled on Binet‟s scale. 2 descendant scales are: Weschler
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