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Psych 1X03 - Exam Notes (Lectures from Entire Year)

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Lara Housez

Levels of Analysis 3 Levels of Analysis: Psych: What lies in a person’s mind. How thoughts/memories/emotions motivate actions Bio: Physiological mechanisms and factors that underlie thoughts + behaviours Environment: Socio/cultural/learning how they influence behaviour Models: Abstract representations of how the mind functions used to explain complex processes Reductionism: All human behaviour can be reduced to biology of the brain Structural Neuroimaging: Physical makeup of the brain Functional Neuroimaging: What the brain is actually doing Habituation: Repeated exposure resulting in oblivious/indifference to it Pure Cognitive Perspective: Use models to describe how the brain/mind functions Developmental Psychology: How genetic + environment factors contribute to changes in behaviour across a lifespan Evolutionary Psychology: ^^^Same as above but over Long ancient periods of time Sociocultural Perspective: How individuals are influenced by culture and interactions with others Research Methods Scientific Method: 1) Theory: General set of ideas about way world works 2) Hypothesis: Set of testable statements that makes specific predictions about theory 3) Research Method: Way hypothesis will be tested 4) Date Collection + Analysis: Taking measurements + the outcomes (noting trends) 5) Report Findings: Publish article/ journal 6) Revise Theories: Research is dynamic; always changing Paradigm Shift: Dramatic change in our way of thinking Anecdotal Evidence: Gathered from others or self experience Independent Variable: Manipulated by scientist Dependent Variable: Observed by scientist Within-Subjects Experimental Design: Subjects are in control + experimental, exposing them to both to eliminate subject differences Practice Effect: Performance increases over time because participant has become more experienced (*difficult to tell if this or actual independent variable Between Subjects Experimental Design: 1 group is manipulated, 1 isn’t Confounding Variable: Variable that affects the result that isn’t independent Population: General people we want to learn about Sample: Selected people we’re studying  Random Sample reduces bias  Random assortment involves randomly sticking  People in control and experiment groups (blind experiment)  If the experimenter also doesn’t know then it is double blind Histogram: Type of graph used to report the # of times group of values appear in a data set Frequency Distribution: Curve that connects the peak of each bar in a histogram Normal Distribution: Bell Curve! Measures of central tendency :  Tell us where the data set is centred, however these can’t tell you have the values fall around the central point vs. measures of variability tell you the distribution of data o Mean: Average Value but it is susceptible to influence by outliers (#s out of typical range so either too big/small) o Median: Middle of data o Mode: Value that appears most frequently in dataset Standard Deviation: Measures of the average distance of each data point from the mean Inferential Statistics: Use results from samples to infer about populations T-Test: Calculates the probability that your results were found by chance (known as a p-value) P-value: P-value must be greater than equal to 0.05 (5%) which says there was a less or = to 5% chance that the results occurred by chance. If P-value is greater than or equal to 0.05 then the results are statistically significant Correlated: 2 related variables in an observational study  When you are observing as an experiment due to ethical concerns for performing certain experiments Correlation Coefficient ( r ): degree to which 2 variables are related Correlation is not causation: They can be correlated but their relationship doesn’t necessarily cause the correlation Classical Conditioning The learning of a contingency between a particular signed and a later event that are paired in time and or space (*2 related events) A Contingent relationship forms when the presentation of one stimulus reliably leads to the presentation of another Unconditional Stimulus: Naturally occurring, automatically triggers a response in the absence of learning Unconditional Response: Specific response that occurs naturally after US without training Conditional Stimulus: Previously neutral stimulus that after becoming associated with a US eventually comes to trigger response (*contingency forms between CS & US) Conditional Response: Response that occurs once the contingency between the CS & US has been learned US  Seeing food (Date) UR  Salivating (Smile) CS  Ringing bell before seeing food (Smelling Perfume of Date) CR  Salivating (Smile) Acquisition: Process by which a contingency between a CS and US is learned - Most CS + US learning occurs in the early acquisition trials - taste aversion learning is an exception: ex: food poisoning in rats - As long as the CS continues to be a reliable cue, for the US the contingency will be maintained and the CR will continue Extinction: The loss of the CR when the CS no longer predicts the US - Presents the CS alone for many trails until the CR becomes weaker and weaker then disappears Spontaneous Recover: Extinction involves a new inhibitory learned response not a complete “extinction”/elimination of the contingency - If the CS and US is presented again the CR can be elicited Stimulus Generation: Classical conditioning of learned responses to a variety of different stimuli - Generalization gradient = normal distribution - Further away (not similar CS) does not elicit CR *drawing graph Stimulus Discrimination: Restricts the range of CS that can elicit a CR - Discrimination training: Narrows the range of CS that elicit a CR o Graph showing original generalization gradient o After discrimination training Discrimination Training: Presents the CS without the US for / \ parts while presenting the Strongest CS with the US to eliminate ‘discriminate the / \ parts CS +  Stimulus predicting the presence of a US CS-  Stimulus predicting the absence of a US Implosive Therapy: Using discrimination training on people with a phobia to the CS  Can cause trauma Systematic Desensitization: Gradual exposure to feared CS extinguish CS at end of curve and move up Homeostasis: Process by which the body regulates physiological internal systems like temp, glucose Drug Addicts: With each drug the CR grows in strength and is countered by body’s natural UR - Environment triggers help trigger the CR to counter effect Overdose: Normal dosage of drug taken outside of environment so only UR is triggered not counters effecting CR as well Instrumental Conditioning Involves learning contingency between behaviour and Consequence Law of Effect: Behaviours with a + consequence are stamped in - Behaviours with a – consequence are stamped out Thorndike’s cat in box experiment: The frequency of random behaviours gradually decreased over time Reinforcer: Any stimulus which when presented with a response leads to a change in the rate of that response Reward Training: Presentation of a + reinforcer following response causes an increase in behaviour Punishment: Presentation of a – reinforcer following response causes a decrease in behaviour - A Punisher (parent / Adult) can become a symbol of pain through classical conditioning Omission Training: Removal of a + reinforcer following response causes a decrease in behaviour Escape Training: Removal of a – reinforcer following a response causes an increase in behaviour Acquisition: Leads to the contingency between a response and it’s consequences being learned *graph* Autoshaping: A contingency can be learned without explicit training guided by a researcher Shaping: Small steps (each reinforced through regard training gradually lead to a larger complicated behaviour being learned Discriminative Stimulus: Signals when a contingency between a particular response and reinforcement is on S-Delta: Cue which indicates when the contingent relationship is not valid - Use of S-delta for / \ parts through discrimination training can lead to extinction of / \ parts since no + consequence follows acting on those stimuli Ratio Schedule: Based on the # of responses made by a subject Interval Schedule: Based on the time since the last response was reinforced Fixed Variable: Set amount (10 min, 10 trials) Variable Variable: Random (avg of 10 etc) Pg. a Fixed ratio – must complete task set amount of times ex. -> peck 3 times to receive award - reinforcement, pause, response Variable ratio – reinforcement is delivered after some random # of responses - only way to get reinforcement is to keep playing but reinforcement is very low so not statistically good idea Fixed interval – reinforcement is delivered following first response after set interval of time - slack off after reinforcement then pick up when you know the next reinforcement is coming Variable interval – reincoement is delivered following first reponse after a varying interval of time that is around a set mean (aka “anytime” but usually between, for example 5-10 min) - steeper slope for a usually more frequent interval Partial reinforcement schedules are more resistant to extinction than continuous reinforcement schedules Ch 5 – Language: 3 criteria for “true language” 1) language is regular, governed by rules & grammar 2) language is arbitrary; sound or word has no reference on what the word represents 3) language is productive; limitless ways to combine words to describe objects/situations/actions Whorf-Sapir Hypothesis: language influences our thoughts and the way we perceive and experience the world; thoughts =/= language but some thoughts take the form of language Support for WS -> tribe in Brazil has 3 counting words -> 1, 2, many & can sort a few items but not multiples Against WS -> Wyoming Arapaho Indians wave the same word for every adult male but understand differences between them Morpheme – in oral language, the smallest units of sound that contain information - in manual/sign language, the smallest units of sign that contain information - form complete words & single words can contain multiple morphemes - ex. [table][cloth]; [table][s] s= plural phonemes - smallest units of language -> constituent sounds - varies on the language which can be combined and which cannot - d/o/g or ch/ai/r pg. syntax – rules that govern how sentences are put together - grammar! - It is different to describe syntax rules of your own language to someone else Semantics – meaning of each individual word - The colourless green ideas sleep furiously beside the hujibo - Syntax = yes, doesn’t violate grammar BUT - Semantics = no, does not logically make sense It is difficult to distinguish if language production & comprehension are limited by cognitive development or other production factors like vocal anatomy When you hear someone speaking another language it always sounds like they’re speaking fast because you cannot easily segment the speech into individual words  there is a positive correlation between early segmentation skills and expressive vocabulary at age 2 1/2  between age 1 – 6 is the language explosion. Vocabulary & syntax complexity increases rapidly Infant directed speech – tendency for mothers to use higher pitch/exaggerated pitch changes when talking to infants. => using this helps infants learn to discriminate between vowel sounds; infants can discriminate more phonemes than adults Universal phoneme sensitivity – the ability of infants to discriminate between any sound they’re tested on  tested through “head turning experiment” where infants were conditioned to a certain phoneme than another phoneme was plagued and if the infant turned their head they registered it as different infants can discriminate even non-native sounds that are not in their native language but this ability is lost by the end of their 1 year.  learning another language at a young age leads to superior mastery of all aspects of language accents are shaped by location & dominant speech pattern of the environment an individual is raised in foreign accent syndrome – results from brain injury/stroke multiple theories as to why this occurs: - individuals with FAS alternate between a variety of accents because it makes speaking less difficult due to their injured brain parts - individuals with FAS sound like they have an accent but really are having trouble pronouncing the phonemes of their language due to their inured brain parts social learning theory – children learn language through a combination of imitation & operant condition ex. Accidentally saying mama but followed with praise & repetition = they will say it again support – Genie -> children who haven’t between exposed to language seem to fail to develop skills against – children combine words (gibberish) and make mistakes that adults don’t Ex. Overextension => applying a rule too broadly Jumped =/= runned; doggie =/= all 4 legged animals Underextension => applying a rule to a specific object only Doggie = only my pet dog Innate Mechanism Theory – language develops rapidly due to an innate mechanism LAD – language acquisition device - humans have innate mechanisms to understand underlying rules of all languages - infants brain scans show responses to language => their brains are prewired to adapt to sounds  deaf kids spontaneously sign even without knowing sign language Animal Languages: - bees uses their very specific waggle dance for location of food - all the monkeys could do simple sentences but had difficulty doing complex requests, combining them into novel combinations, or use advance syntax Ch 6 – Problem Solving + Categories & Concepts: Intelligence- cognitive ability of an individual to learn from experience, reason well, remember important info, and cope with the debands of daily living  definition by Sternberg Intelligence - whatever intelligence tests measure  Definition by Boring Deductive reasoning - came to concrete conclusion based on general info Ex. “it’s gonna rain” => “the ground soon will be wet” Inductive reasoning – generate general idea based on concrete info. Ex. “the ground is wet” => “it must’ve rained” Functional fixedness – our difficulty seeing alternative uses for common objects The reliability of a test measures the extent to which repeated tests produce consistent results The validity of a test measures the extent to which a test is actually measuring what the researchers claims to be measuring Single level of intelligence – controversial, based on reaction times and reasoning in everyday life tasks Multiple levels of intelligence – each is independent of the other  people argue that it ignores the fact that people who do well on 1 type of intelligence test typically do well on others Typical IQ tests => Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS); Wescheler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) The results of IQ test depend on the sample of individual who have taken the test => mean score is 100 and the standard deviation is 15  IQ scores have been on the rise since the ‘30s  Identical twins have a strong positive correlation, fraternal turns is slightly less Cannot determine if it is genetic or environment Schema – mental framework for interpreting the world around us Ex. Greg frowns at you = “we must not be happy” Assimilation – incorporating new info into existing schemas Accommodation – modifying existing schemas to fit incompatible information A stages of development – to progress to a new level a change in a child’s schema must occur - the rate at which they progress through varies but they must be passed through in this order Sensorimotor stage (up to 2) – child begins to realize he objects his environment; [also realizes objects exist even if he cannot see them] -> known as object permanence Preoperational stage (2-7) - suffers from: Egocentrism – can’t understand world from perspectives that aren’t his Seriation – can’t logically order a series (ex. -> largest to smallest) Reversible relationships – “Do you have a brother?” “Yes, Bob” “Does Bob have a sister?” “No” Conservation - cannot differentiate Concrete operational stage (7-12) – all of the above is fixed; cannot think abstractly Formal operational stage (11+) – can think abstractly, reason, and understand theoretical worlds Confirmation bias – tendency to seek at info that supports your hypothesis only Ex. Drs diagnosing ask for things that confirm diagnosis. We tend to believe more people die of gun wounds but its actualy diabetes Availability heuristic – our tendency to make decisions based on the info that is most quickly available to us -> mental shortcuts Representativeness heuristic – our tendency to assume that what we are seeing is representative of the larger category we have in our mind Availability ex: dude reading book must be an english professor, can’t be a farmer Representative ex: on the roulette table “OMG even keeps coming up, it’ll be even” but it is always a 50/50 chance! Attention – helps you focus finite mental resources on key parts of active scene Memory – can help you recall rspecific behaviours which are appropriate for your current needs Classification – allows you to treat objects that appear differently as belonging together Understanding – knowing what is happening & comprehending your position Predicting – categorizing current experience & comparing to similar ones to assess/predict about current situation Communication – many words refer to a single (or multiple) category (ies) or concept (s) Illusion of the expert – the feeling that something must be simple because you are so good at it Ex. tying shoes isn’t easy to children. Theoretical physics isn’t easy to people who aren’t physicists Creating rules for categorizing is not simple especially for complex categories and broad concepts like freedom/justice/irony  this is because humans have an internal representation of categories independent of the rules we try to define them with prototype theory (better for simple objects than exemplar) – we categorize objects by comparing them to an internal representation of the category called a prototype which is thought to be the average or best member of a category  we categorize new objects by comparing them to prototypes  things closer to our prototype are categorized more quickly  however our prototype changes over time, it is not stable Exemplar theory (more accurate for complexities) – instead of storing only 1 average prototype/category we store our entire lifetime of experience and each past instance is called an exemplar  categorization works by searching through library of exemplars to find the closest one Children understand that members of the same category share similar characteristics and that categories have innate properties Limitations in nonhuman animals ability to categorize could explain why they don’t use true language Ch 7: Attention & Memory Attention - talking possession by the mind in clear form of one of what seem several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought. It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others & is a condition which has a real opposite in the confused, dazed, scatterbrained state Selection – attending to something causes the object of attention to be selected apart from the rest of the unattended objects Automatic Selection – stimuli trigger attention automatically. Ie -> bright light Conscious selection – ability to attend to info that is relevant to our goals Irrelevant info – noise that makes it difficult to identify & attend to important info  we can naturally distinguish relevant/irrelevant but with distractions it is difficult Automatic processes - triggered involuntarily by external events are captures attention; fast, efficient, obligatory - accidentally driving to a place you didn’t mean to “autopilot” Controlled processes – guide attention voluntarily and consciously to objects of interest, requires cognitive effort, operates slower - first learning to drive car Salience – some cues seem to be more noticeable and lead to strong and quicker association when paired with events - ex. Flashing ambulance lights pg. Spotlight model - spotlight can only focus on one thing at a time - can be consciously directed when you direct it to look for something or hijacked by unconscious processes like “avoid that car speeding towards you OH NOES”  objects that fall in the spotlight are processed faster & with greater accuracy - your automatic processing can detect cues and move oyur attention faster than your eyes can move - a filter helps us to ignore background noises to continue processing what we’re looking at - a spotlight enhances the processing of the single thing we’re looking at Broadbent’s Single Filter Model: - filter selects important info based on physical characteristics & the useless crap was assumed to be eliminated (unable to be further processed) - => however in experiments participants could recall things from the unattended background noist stream: not deleted - => known as breakthrough Triesman’s dual filter model: Info => physical filter => semantic filter => further processing Stroop Task: what colour is the ink? Congruent Items – matching ie. Blue => performance for these is faster Incongruent Items – not matching ie. YELLOW When 75% congruent & 25% incongruent, there is an increased stroop effect (mistakes) When 75% incongruent & 25% congruent, there is a decreased stroop affect (do well)  this proves we have automatic effects since we read the word GREEN as “green” even when we are voluntarily trying to look at the colour  this also proves we have controlled effects since we can decrease the stroop effect by consciously looking at the colour Single search feature -> you can have to look for one particular feature to identify the target set size - the # of items to search through set size effect – difficult as set size pop out effect – visual search task that proceeds rapidly regardless of set size; easily induced by random colour conjunction search task – looking for a target that is defined by 2+ features. ADHD/anxiety/OCD/depression/insomnia => chronic attentional errors play a role in these Hemispatial neglect – person with damage to right parietal lobe may continue to see objects to the left but fail to pay attention to them  ie. Only eating food on right hand side or shaving half face memory as a filing cabinent, video camera or computer  is inaccurate because it assumes memory is stored in original format, not distorted and easily retrieved 3 basics of memory: Acquisition => what is stored? Storage => how & where? Retrieval => how do they return to consciousness Encoding specificity – phenomenonby which encoding and retrieval are linked through cues The forgetting curve – describes the increasing rate of memory failure over time Multistore model – memory is composed of short & long term storage systems; first stored in short term then important info can be transferred to long term Short term => 7+/- 2 items on average; chunks of info are more easily remembered (FBI/CIA vs. JHL/KZY) Primacy effect – memory performance is better for items encoded early in a list because they have the most opportunity for rehearsal and better chance of being transferred to LTM Recency Effect – memory performance is better for items encoded last in a list because although there is little opportunity for rehearsal they are the last things so easily remembered To improve primacy -> the better the rehearsal/encoding time, the better the memory To diminish recency -> distractions at the end disrupt the track and neutralize the recency effect Levels of processing model -> memory performance depends on the level at which items are encoded! Shallow level – encodes physical characteristics at stimuli with little effort & poor memory performance Deeper level - encodes semantic characteristics & stimuli with significant effort & better memory performance  the more you actively organize and understand the material to be learned, the better you will be able to remember it your memory encodes all aspects of the experience including the environmental cues for the memory Encoding context -> how it is encoded (ie -> underwater) Encoding specificity -> where it is encoded and how will affect where/how the memory is retrieved (ie. Study for test under test conditions) False memories demonstrate that memory is highly constructive which certainly has implications for eye witness testimonies  imagining memories, retrieving them, thinking of them -> all cause false additions/interpretations fluency – the ease with which an experience is processed attribution – judgement that ties together causes with effect ex -> we think we know someone blood, phlegm, yellow bile, black bile Psychodynamic Approach – personality is generated by internal psychic structures or processes ID – basic instincts, motivational energy, libido - food, sex, water - find pleasures at all costs, very selfish, ignores how behaviour affects others Superego – focused on upholding moral principles - obey rules, respect values - the “conscience” (moral conscience) exists here - forms as a result of parental self control at age 5/6 Ego - mediator, aware of the outside reality - works to find a balance between desires of ID and demands of superego while ensuring all decisions are realistically possible ID – entirely unconscious Superego – mostly unconscious, a little preconscious & conscious Ego – all 3 Sometimes ID impulses are immoral and thinking about them would cause the ego to feel morally anxious - conscious ego is protected by defense mechanisms by the unconscious ego to keep morally questionable impulses from reaching consciousness Repression – unconscious ego entirely blocks ID impulses from EVER reaching consciousness (requires a lot of energy)  Freudian slips are when they slip into consciousness  Also can appear in dreams Sometimes ID impulses are so great they reach consciousness so our consciousness ego uses defense mechanisms to ensure the conscious ego doesn’t understand the true native of the desire so we don’t feel anxious Denial – conscious ego engages in the anxiety producing behaviour but the unconscious ego prevents any memory of the behaviour from getting back into consciousness Ex- saying something awful to a friend but having no memory at all of saying it a week later to prevent guilt/anxious feelings Rationalization – conscious ego has done something dangerous/immoral so unconscious ego comes up with logical reasons to justify the behaviour Ex – fighting “hey! It is morally wrong to engage in violence” Unconscious ego says “but fighting in self defense is morally acceptable” Projection – our anxiety producing thoughts are attributed to someone else. Ex. “I really don’t like her but I don’t know why” “Bob is gross and weird. Eww” Displacement – unconscious ego redirects forbidden impulses away from the original target to a more consciously acceptable target. Ex. “GAH! I hate my boss!!” “dammit Janet! You’re being a really annoying bff today!”
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