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Final

PSYCH 1X03 Final Exam Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim
Semester
Fall

Description
Introduction to PsychologyDualismthe mind and body are distinct entities linked in a dualistic relationship Rene DescartesThe mind controls movements of the body and receives information about the outside Structuralismfocuses on elements of conscious thought and perception reduces conscious experience to core components Introspectionsubjects observing and reporting their own experiencesLevels of Analysis1 Psychological role of what lies within a subjects mind memory language trauma 2 Biological physiological mechanisms that under lie our thoughts and behavior structure and function of brain molecular effects of hormones 3 Environmental how social cultural and learning interactions influence thought and behavior conditions that trigger and maintain feelings and emotionsPerspectives1 Behavioural you can understand anything about an organism by studying its behavior because internal events are impossible to measure in a scientific way mind is an offlimits black box 2 Cognitive psychology must return to internal events in the mind scientific methods applied to study mental processes to fully understand behavior 3 Biological physiological mechanisms of human thought and behaviorleads to reductionismall human behavior can be explained by reducing problems solely to biological mechanisms 4 Evolutionary interested in influence of genetic and environmental factors over a long period of time 5 Developmental focus on how genetic and environmental factors contribute to changes in behavior during a life span mainly studies infants because they are unable to perform complex taskshabituationdoes something repeatedly until bored 6 Sociocultural how individuals are influenced by culture and interactions with others7 Diagnostic meet the diagnostic criteria for psychological disorders 8 Psychodynamic identify and examine unconscious conflict and tensionGestalt movementpsychology should be the study of perception and problem solvingPrinciple of totalitystudy of any conscious experience must simultaneously take in all mental and physical aspects of the individualPrinciple of psychophysical isomorphismsystematic relation between any conscious experience and physical events in the brain and CNS Modern psychodynamic theoryrole of relationships and selfimage with unconscious motivations used in assessment and treatment of psychological disorders Humanist psychologythings that are out of our conscious control Research MethodsThe Scientific Model1 Construct a theorygeneral set of ideas about the way the world works 2 Generate hypothesistestable statement that makes specific predictions 3 Choose research method 4 Collect data 5 Analyze datanote specific trendsrelationships between variables 6 Report findings7 Revise existing theories Withinsubjects experimental designtests same subject repeatedly while manipulating independent variablePractice effectimproved performances over course of experiments Betweensubjects experimental designone group is experimental treatment and other is control placebo Confounding variablevariable other than the independent variable has an effect on resultsSuspect BiasesRandom assortmentassigning subject to experimentalcontrol group randomlyLimits preexisting differences between the groups Placebo effectoccurs when individual exhibits a response to a treatment that has no related therapeutic effectConsidered when participants might know expected result in advanceCountered by also giving control group mock treatment Participant biasparticipants actions in an experiment influences the results outside of manipulations of experimenter
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