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McMaster University
Joe Kim

SEPTEMBER 9 : LEVELS OF ANALYSES Psychology - Understanding human thought and behaviour - Teaches us how we learn information, how we recognize a face, how behaviour is influenced in an environment, how we think, feel, develop, learn, love and grow - There is a scientific method for interpreting and evaluating data - Parents are philosophy and physiology - “Long past but a short history” – Ebbinghaus in 1908 - Aristotle and Plato contemplated how we learned knowledge and where knowledge came from - Descartes (I think, therefore I am) believed that mind and the body were distinct entities linked in a dualistic relationship where mind controlled movement and received information through the senses – mind-body dualism - Muller proposed that different areas of the brain served different functions and proposed that messages were transmitted by nerves like electrical impulses – through Helmholtz’s work, was able to find that nerve speed was not as fast as an electrical current - Through Flourens, he was able to find that different parts of the brain served different functions because Flourens lesioned parts of the animal brain to study the function of regions - Wilhelm Wundt – an experimentalist who believed that consciousness could be studied using experiments and in 1879, developed the first lab devoted to psychology, in 1881, he published the first scientific psychological journal, and Hall (one of students) opened a psych lab at JHU, and formed the APA (1892) - Early psychology focused on the mind, today’s psychology focuses on the links between the brain and behaviour Levels of Analysis - Includes asking questions from different levels – psychological, biological and environmental - Psychological – most intuitive in understanding human behaviour, asks questions about how thoughts, memories and emotions affect behaviour - Biological – focuses on physiological mechanisms that underlie thoughts and behaviour, structure and function of the brain and effects of neurotransmitters/hormones, also focuses on the contribution of genetic factors in behaviour, may be interested in study of neurotransmitters such as serotonin (mood) - Environmental – concerned with how social and cultural environments interactions influence behaviour, may study conditions that trigger or maintain feelings and focus is on working to change external influences to bring a positive results - The levels of analysis also have perspectives – behaviourist/learning, evolutionary and developmental, social/cultural, cognitive and neurological Behaviourist Perspective - Treat the mind as a black box, measure the effect of what we are able to learn on behaviour - John B. Watson is the father of behaviourism, credited with making research methods - Stated that behaviour is only valid means of measure and that the mind is off limits – black box - Used carefully controlled experiments to understand the influence of the environment - Said nurture was more important that nature, stated that he could take babies and make them whoever he wanted them to be - BF Skinner – believed in the laws of stimulus-response (repeat behaviour for a pleasant output, do not repeat for an unpleasant output) - Behaviour Modification was formed based on Skinner’s theory - a therapy based on this law Cognitive Perspective - A form of psychological analysis - Use of models to construct abstract representations of functions in the mind (internal events) and used to make predictions - Includes things like thought, attention, memory, language and problem solving - Models of Cognition – single memory model and complex memory model - Single Memory Model – assumes that there is only one memory storage and that information goes in and can be recalled when needed, it can trigger questions and lead to questions about how we can determine if information has entered, finding that suggests not all memories are equal – easy to forget something you just learned, harder to forget something you learned for years - Complex Memory Model – 2 step model that encompasses short and long term memory, information first enters a temporary short term memory and process and then some will enter long term memory - Models in Cognition – new model needs to be tested, experimented to provide more information about the new model and then either we can abandon or revise the old model - Models provide a framework and generate interesting questions, and in answering questions, the old model may not account for new data and so a new model must be made Neurological Perspective - Reductionism – all human behaviour can be reduced to the biology of the brain – strong position of reduction in cellular and molecular terms - Cannot explain everything, overly restricted view fails to capture complexity but has benefitted from technology to help understand physiological mechanisms - Neuroimaging – early pioneers of neuroscience used to drill through the skull and use invasive tools, noninvasive tools now include X-rays and CT scanning, can be structural or functional - Structural MRIs allow us to see physiological makeup of the brain, good in seeing if male and female brains differ in size - Functional MRIs allow us to see if males and females use the same parts of their brain to perform a task, allow us to see what the brain is doing Evolutionary/Developmental - Eg. Aggression – if the question was why are men more aggressive than women, an answer using this perspective would be – does it make adaptive sense for men to have higher aggression than woman, and does it make sense to have a higher level of aggression in survival - Developmental – how genetic or environmental factors contributes to changes across a lifespan – eg. What factors determine rates of alcoholism in individuals in populations - Evolutionary – how genetic or environmental factors contributes to changes across many generations (100-1000 years) - Infant Research and Habituation – because children cannot articulate or perform complex tasks, developmental psychologists developed methods to study this - Infant response is introduced in the age at which children can tell individuals apart so developmental psychologists showed infants the same picture until they became bored, shows the infant the new picture and if the infant suddenly looks interested this proves that the infant recognizes the new individual Social/Cultural Perspective - Deals with the influence of individuals on each other, and influence of culture - Individuals on a group, group on an individual and group on a group - Eg. How crowds react in an emergency situation, experiment (artificial emergency situation) - Systematically manipulating variables such as severity of emergency or size of group, helps predict social behaviour in real life situations - A lot of these experiments have to consider ethics when performing experiments – how will exposure affect the participants’ health, stress, etc., participants may have to be deceived and will not be able to know the purpose of the experiment Depression - Behaviourist perspective of depression – what behaviors are associated with the depression and how can they be altered? - Learning perspective – through animal research, subjects have been seen to learn that they are unable to escape an unpleasant stimulus, learning that it is helpless and no longer tries to overcome this unpleasantness – learned helplessness TH SEPTEMBER 16 : RESEARCH METHODS Only experiment tests causal studies Independent: what is manipulated Dependant: what is observed Correlational observational: testing megan’s study Hard to come to solid conclusion Between**** Problems with giving survey to her friends: random assignment lacks generalization, subject and experimenter bias, Use r value, correlation coefficient P value calculated using t test Probability of obtaining result by chance P<0.05 by chance The Scientific Method: provides seven step recipe for how to collect and analyze info while trying to minimize biases, conflicts, or oversights Construct theory Generate hypothesis Choose research method Collect data Analyze data Report findings Revise existing theories  Goal of scientist is to discover new info to understand how world works  Scientists must carefully consider how to collect and analyze data to produce reliable + meaningful results  Hypotheses help us understand complex research questions about human thought and behavior  Scientists begin by studying existing collection of info about world such as previous published work  Info helps them construct a theory: general set of ideas about how the world works  Theory guides creation of a set of testable statements called hypotheses: makes specific prediction about relationship between variables involved n theory  Next step involves selecting research method that is app to test hypothesis  Quintessential one is experiment as it allows scientists to collect data about how events of the world unfold which may or may not agree with hypothesis  Scientists analyze data to note specific trends or relationships that research reveals to either accept or reject hypothesis  Scientists report finding of research by making formal presentations with goal of publishing into scholarly articles  Each submission must undergo rigorous review process by experts to insure research is scholarly + meaningful to field  Ind. Scientists + scientific community as a whole review all findings on a topic to revise existing theories that define current understanding of the world  Science + research both dynamic processes  Every so often, particularly dramatic change in our way of thinking called paradigm shift: 1543, Copernicus challenged existing dogma that earth was center of universe Eric mega study energy drink study testing claim that mega study energy drink improves memory and test scores  Eric’s theory assumes test performance can be affected by external factors  His theory suggests a hypothesis which makes specific testable prediction: students consuming energy drinks should show higher test scores when compared with students not consuming energy drinks  Hypothesis: students taking energy drink should show improved test performance when compared with students not drinking them  Eric may initially look for anecdotal evidence: evidence gathered from others or self experience  Problems with makeshift experience: single experience might not be representative, personal experience might not represent others, cannot be sure that result is due to energy drinks alone  Experiment: used to measure the effect of one variable on another  Iv: variable manipulated by scientist  Dv: variable being observed by scientist  He should take tests of exams written with mega study and then exams written without Control groups  By asking his roommate to take test without energy drink eric is manipulating iv of energy drink usage while measuring effects on dv of test performance  Experiment consists of experimental group who receive manipulation of iv and control group Within subjects design (repeated measures)  Manipulating iv within each participant to minimize effect of external variables on dependent measure  Technique uses same subject repeatedly while iv is manipulated  Minimizes effect of subject differences on dependent measure  Can be time consuming and costly to have subject complete entire experiment  Measure used or subject himself may change in important ways during course of experiment  Practice effect: improved performance over course of an experiment due to becoming more experienced; can reduce control of experiment because its hard to separate this natural improvement from effect of manipulating independent variable Between subjects design  One group of participants receives experimental manipulation while other acts as control group  Imp for people being tested to e as similar as possible in every way except our manipulation of independent variable  Any systematic differences between participants would be a confounding variable(variable other than iv that has effect on results): may confound ability to determine that differences in dv were caused exclusively by manipulation  Results can start being influenced by other things ex diet on top of energy drink usage Sampling  Results from very specific groups of participants cannot be generalized to other groups  By using extremely specific group of participants, Eric is limiting scope of his conclusions  Random sample: choosing a sample at random from the entire population, reduce chance of selections being biased towards a specific group of people Conducting experiment  Placebo effect: occurs when an individual exhibits a response to a treatment that has no related therapeutic effect  Participant bias: when participants actions in an experiment influence the results outside of manipulations of experimenter  Test improvement may be due to participant’s influence, not the experimental manipulation  Form of subject bias, which can intentionally/ unintentionally influence results of experiment  Experimenter bias: actions made by experimenter, unintentionally/ deliberately to promote result they hope to achieve since they know the hypothesis that they are attempting to test  This can be reduced if experimenter themselves does not know whether each individual participant belongs to experimental or control group = double blind study: where neither the experimenter not participants know which group each participant belongs to  Eric used between subjects double blind experiment and had his experimental and control groups write standard test Working with raw data  Statistics allows us to summarize, interpret and present data we have collected  Descriptive statistics can be used to condense 40 scores into a form that is easier to communicate  Histograms: type of graph used to report number of times (frequency) groups of values appear in a data set, data point values are added to histogram to report number of times groups of values appear in a data set  Horizontal x axis divided into groups of values called bins  Vertical axis measures number values in data set that fall into given bin known as frequency  Frequency distribution: type of graph illustrating distribution of how frequent values pear in data set, smooth curve connects peaks of each bar in the graph  Height at each point of graph plots frequency with which a value appeas in underlying data set  Normal distribution: distribution with characteristic smooth, bell and symmetrical-shaped curve around a single peak, including things like iq, height and test scores Measures of central tendency, when data is centered  Mean: avg value of a data set, calculated by adding together all of point in a data set and dividing by number of items in set  Mean is very susceptible to influence by outliers: extreme points distant from others in a data set  Median: center value in a data set when the set is arranged numerically, odd number of points with left and right crossed off successively until median remains or one with even number of points with left and right crossed off successively and remaining two points avged to determine median, cannot be affected by outlier  Mode: value that appears most frequently in a set  Tells us most typical response when looking at a data set, can be used for non-numerical data Measures of variability: review spread and distribution of a data set  Central tendency fails to tell us how other values fall around that point  Two classes can have same mean and median but very different distributions  Smaller spread: smaller standard deviation  Larger spread: larger standard deviation  Standard deviation: measure of avg. distance of each data point from the mean  Erics data: avg tests of experimental group is slightly higher than control group, however spread of scores from experimental group is slightly greater than control group Inferential statistics: allow us to use results from samples to make inferences about overall, underlying population ( hypothesis testing)  There will always be some random variability in results purely by chance  According to Eric’s hypothesis, we would expect distribution of test scores from experimental group to be shifted to right, in essence showcasing that the experimental and control groups belong to different populations  Control group belongs to general population receiving no treatment and experimental group belongs to separate population under positive effects of energy drinks  Energy drink has no effect – both groups belong to same population, energy drink has positive effect – experimental group belongs to different population  Basic inferential statistics technique known as t-test (statistical test that considers each data point from both groups to calculate probability of getting the results by chance, if there is in fact only one distribution underlying both groups in experiment) can be used to compare difference between data from control and experimental group  T test produces a p value: value expressing probability calculated by t- test  Fundamentally, through t-test, eric is asking is the difference between my control and experimental groups large enough for me to confidently say that energy drinks improved test scores?  Scientists typically require t-test to show p-value of less than .0.05 indicating that there is only 5% probability that they could have found observed difference between groups purely by chance, even if the difference doesn’t really exist  Less than 5% = results are considered to be statistically significant  After finding set of results indicating some difference between a control and experimental group, the p-value gives probability that the results would have been found even if the control and experimental groups actually came from same population  Statistical significance: when difference between two groups is due to some true difference between the properties of the 2 groups and not simply due to random variation Observational research: studies where scientists observe the effect of variables they’re interested in without performing any manipulation, in times when performing experiment is difficult due to ethical or practical concerns  Scientist conducting observational study finds that two variables are related to each other, we say they are correlated: measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables  Degree with which two variables are correlated is measure by the correlation coefficient, r value  Tells us both the strength of the correlation as well as the direction  A correlation coefficient of +1, as one variable increases the other also increases  Correlation coefficient of -1, as one of the variables increases the other decreases  R=+1 = perfect positive correlation  R= -1= perfect negative correlation  As relationship between two variables gets weaker, the correlation coefficient approaches zero, indicating that there is no relationship whatsoever between two variables being measured  Correlation does not equal causation SEPTEMBER 23 : CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Intro to Learning  Unconscious, reflexive learning is vital to the survival of a species ie. child only needs to touch a hot stove once to learn to avoid glowing red elements to prevent pain  Two main types: classical conditioning: allows us to associate two related events and instrumental conditioning: allows us to associate actions and consequences Classical Conditioning  Foundation laid out by famous Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov in 1890s and 1900s  Often called Pavlovian conditioning to honour his contributions  Pavlov interested in stages of digestion, Starting with salivation in mouth as food was first ingested  Pavlov made an extraordinary observation: dogs would begin to salivate even before any food reached their mouth  As if early step in process of digestion triggered even before food stimulus arrived  In his experiment, sound of metronome signaled to a dog that food was about to be delivered  Prior to training, sound of metronome had no observable effect on dogs behavior but following training, dog would begin salivating in response to sound of metronome alone  New behavior called conditional reflex, because it was conditional upon training  Pavlov technically studying contingent relationship: presentation of one stimulus reliably leads to presentation of another ie. Seeing flash of lightning before you hear crash of thunder  When an organism learns the association between a signal and an event = contingent relationship has formed between the two stimuli  Classical conditioning: learning of a contingency between a particular signal and a later event that are paired in time and/or space  When a contingent relationship is learned, organism can respond to the signal before the event even occurs  This conditional response is often prepatory in nature and can promote survival  Makes sense to begin salivating in anticipation of arriving food because it makes digestion more efficient ie. Makes sense to avoid eating strawberries if they cause a strong allergic reaction  Through our experience with citrus fruits in the past, we have learned contingency between sight of a lemon and act of citric acid meeting your mouth  Learning contingent relationship between sounds, smells and sights associated with predators and attacks is critical to the antelope’s chances for survival TERMINOLOGY OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING  US (unconditional stimulus): any stimulus or event that unconditionally and automatically triggers a response in the absence of any learning, occurring naturally ie. Food placed in a dogs mouth or a slice of lemon placed in mouth, will naturally trigger a response without any training being necessary  UR (unconditional response): response that occurs after the unconditioned stimulus, occurs naturally prior to any learning  Whenever a US occurs, a UR always follows without need for training  Response is often biologically programmed reflex ie. Food elicits an unconditional response of salivation in dogs mouth and lemon juice placed in your mouth elicits a similar UR  CS (conditioned stimulus): paired with the unconditioned stimulus to produce a learned contingency  Classical conditioning gets interesting when a neutral stimulus is thrown into the mix  A CS is a previously neutral stimulus that becomes associated with an unconditional stimulus to eventually trigger a response on its own ie. Pavlov paired a CS of the sound of a metronome with the US of placing of food in the dogs mouth  Sight and sound of lemon becomes CS after being repeatedly paired with the US of lemon juice being placed in your mouth  Conditional stimulus typically appears before the unconditional stimulus, may take several trials of training in which the stimuli are paired before the CS alone elicits a response; when this occurs, the organism has learned a contingent relationship between the two stimuli  CR (conditioned response): response that occurs once the contingency between the CS and the US has been learned  Initial conditional stimulus did not elicit a specific response  Following pairing with unconditional stimulus, the CS begins to elicit a conditional response  Often this response is very similar to the unconditional response ie. Sound of metronome will eventually come to elicit a conditional response of salivation, just as presenting a lemon visual cue can cause a salvatory response in a a human observer  Acquisition: process by which contingency between a CS and US is learned  Pavlov characterized process of acquisition as following a negatively accelerating curve  Normally contingencies are learned slowly, taking many trials before unconditional and conditional stimuli are effectively paired.  However it seems most of learning happens during early trials, during each additional trial, there is some learning, but never as much as before  Although acquisition typically takes several trials, there are special cases where just one trial is sufficient ie. Rats have developed special learning mechanisms for food selection to help them survive  Rats are constantly searching for food sources and can run risk of consuming something poisonous  As a rule, rats generally avoid unfamiliar foods, a trait known as dietary neophobia  When rats do try novel foods, they will only consume it in small quantities which allows them to effectively pinpoint a specific food as a source of their illness and never eat that food again  This process is made especially efficient by fact that rats can learn contingency between food and sickness in a single trial  CS: taste, US: sickness, UR and CR: aversion  Consumed poison makes rat feel sick which elicits a strong aversion response, the sickness the rat feels is paired with the novel taste of the food, a contingency the rat can learn in just one trial  With this pairing, taste of novel food alone now elicits strong aversion response even before sickness ever occurs – powerful survival mechanism  Taste aversion learning in the rat is just one example of a special learning mechanism  Many different animals have specialized learning abilities to help them adapt to their particular environments Length of Learning Trial  As long as conditional stimulus continues to be reliable cue for the unconditional stimulus, the contingency will be maintained  If conditions change such that the conditional stimulus is no longer a reliable cue, the conditional response will eventually fade  Extinctions: loss of the CR when the CS no longer predicts the US  Dog salivates a lot when shown a metronome, shown it a few more times and each time dog salivates less until finally, when metronome is shown, there is no more salivation  Extinction involves presenting the CS alone, repeatedly over many trials, without the US with which it had been previously paired  At first, CS will elicit a conditional response but over several trials, this response will become weaker and weaker  Is it the case that the previously learned contingency is somehow “unlearned” or erased or is it the case that the old learned contingency remains which now competes with a new inhibitory response that is learned to the same stimulus?  If the contingency is simply unlearned, we would expect that following extinction, retraining between conditional and unconditional stimuli would lead to acquisition of the conditional response at about the same rate as the original training  But if extinction leads to new learning, this suggests that there exists two learned processes that sit side by side; original learned response to CS and a new inhibitory learned response to the CS  Thus we would expect that retraining between conditional and unconditional stimuli would occur at a faster rate compared to original training GENERALIZATION AND DISCRIMINATION  When classical conditioning is produced in lab, done so under carefully controlled conditions that are deliberately set up to be simple, allows experimenter to make explicit pairings between specific conditional and unconditional stimuli  However conditioning in real world can be far more complex ie. A conditioned stimulus may not be identical every time it is presented  During wartime bombing in London in ww2, people developed a conditional fear response to the whistling sound made by the falling bombs  This was case, even though particular whistling sound was different from one bomb to another depending on the distance, type and weather conditions  Nonetheless, variable stimulus came to reliably produce a fear response Stimulus Generalization: process through which classical conditioning of learned responses to a variety of different stimuli occurs  During training, one specific conditional stimulus may be paired with an unconditional stimulus to produce a contingency  However stimuli similar to the CS will often elicit a response ie. If as a child you were bitten by a dog, black Doberman, as an adult, the sight of Doberman still elicits a feat response and so does the sight of other dogs Generalization gradient  CS: 500 HZ tone, US: shock, UR AND CR: fear  In a fear conditioning experiment, a 500 Hz tone is paired with a mild electric shock, as training continues, presentation of 500 Hz tone will lead to conditional fear response, in humans this response is measured through Galvanic Skin Response, in animals its measured by freezing behavior  Once contingency between 50 Hz tone and shock has been established, we can test for stimulus generalization by presenting various tones and measuring the fear response  As fear response is plotted along the spectrum of different tones, a normal distribution called a generalization gradient can be observed  Strongest conditional response is elicited by original 500 Hz training tone, but the stimuli similar to the original tone something like 475 – 525 Hz also elicit fear response at similar levels  Tests with a higher or lower frequency, less and less fear is elicited  For our example, strongest fear response elicited by the image of black Doberman, the original dog that bit you as a child some fear response is still elicited by images of other types of dogs, progressively less fear as image of dog becomes more different than Doberman  Stimulus generalization adds flexibility and efficiency to classical conditioning  If a stimulus is potentially harmful, you will not require separate conditioning experiences to learn that relationship, instead you will generalize your learning to avoid similar stimulus that cue potential danger  Therefore, conditional response can be extinguished by repeatedly presenting the conditional stimulus in the absence of the unconditional stimulus  One way to eliminate fear response you learned is to undergo extinction ie. Seeing the visual stimulus of the dog that bit you as a child but being asked to relax  Unconditional stimulus (being bitten by dog) will not be present, just relax its not there, here is a barking dog, relax, ocean sounds  Exposing patients to several test stimuli along the generalization gradient is often therapeutic  Therefore generalization gradient should be flattened and a decrease in fear responses elicited by dog stimuli should be observed  Compliment to stimulus generalization is stimulus discrimination  While stimulus generalization allows for a variety of stimuli to elicit a response to some degree, stimulus discrimination does the opposite; it restricts the range of conditional stimuli that can elicit a response ie. 500 Hz tone repeatedly paired with an electric shock, under normal circumstances learned fear responses generalizes to variety of tones along the generalization gradient  But using discrimination training, the subjects fear of 600Hz tones can be eliminated while maintaining her fear of 500 Hz tones by repeatedly presenting a 600 Hz tone in absence of the electric shock  Eventually conditional fear response to 600 Hz tone will diminish but fear response elicited by rest of stimuli along gradient remains intact  To improve discrimination, we can alternate between trials in which 600 Hz tone stimulus is presented in absence of any electric shock + trials where the 500 Hz tone is still paired with a shock  Through this, precise discrimination can be reached and the fear response will be pinpointed to the 500Hz tone  CS+: 500Hz, US: Shock, UR: Fear -> predicts presence of shock  CS-: 600Hz, US: Nothing, UR: Nothing -> predicts absence of shock  Two important variables to remember in full discrimination procedure: CS+ and CS-  CS+ stimulus (500Hz tone) predicts presence of an unconditional stimulus  CS- (600Hz tone) predicts absence of the unconditional stimulus  Learning to predict absence of a biological stimulus is just as important as learning to predict its presence  Obviously important why an antelope must learn to respond to a range of CS+ stimuli that predict the presence of a predator  Also important to learn about a range of CS- stimuli which predict the absence of a predator, these CS- stimuli can indicate a period safe from attack during which the antelope is free for forage for food  Following discrimination training, if both CS+ 500Hz and CS- 600Hz are presented simultaneously, the subject will show a intermediate fear response – somewhere between the responses elicited by the two cues  Ie. Antelope shows fear responses to CS+ stimuli (sights, sounds, smells signaling a lion), and shows no fear response to CS- stimuli (time of day indicated by sun, presence of other animals) and begins to graze on grass  Stimulus generalization and discrimination are opposite sides of the same coin  Whereas generalization provides efficiency and flexibility, discrimination refines the learning process  Together, these processes allow an organism to build complex responses that allow adaptive interactions with the environment  True for both the antelope foraging on a grassy savannah plain as well as the commuter dodging traffic on a busy street  Phobia: exaggerated, intense, persistent fear of a certain situations, activities, things or people  Some common phobias include ophidiophobia : fear of snakes aviophobia: fear of flying on a plane  Simple classical conditioning framework can be useful for understanding how a phobia may develop  Person may have traumatic experience with snake which produces long lasting fear which can later be elicited by stimuli that remind him of the experience  In some cases, a conditioned stimulus need not even be experienced to elicit a conditioned response ie. A particularly disturbing story about a snake bite or a plane crash may be enough to elicit a fear response the next time you think about flying or trekking through the forest  CS: Snake -> US: Snake Bite, CR: Fear, UR: Fear Phobias and Therapy  Implosive therapy: individual with a particular phobia is encouraged to confront the CS that evokes their anxiety  CS is presented in absence of the associated US  Someone with a germ phobia may be asked to sit with their hands covered in dirt and grime for as long as possible, while accepting that sickness or danger will not follow  Although this therapy may lead to extinction of the CR, it can be a traumatic experience  Systematic desensitization: uses a more gradual exposure to the feared stimulus  Thinking of a generalization gradient, they would start with extinguishing stimuli a the far end of the curve, gradually working towards the middle  A person with germ phobia may begin therapy by covering their hands with paper confetti while learning to relax and prevent anxiety: gradually working his way through stages of increasingly fearful stimuli, until finally being able to be covered in dirt and grime, more accessible Homeostasis: the process through which your body is actively working to keep core temperature, glucose and ion levels, and numerous other processes within strict parameters through a process called homeostasis; made more efficient through classical conditioning  Salivating begins the digestive process for impending food delivery + freezing responses to conditional fear cues can keep a prey animal hidden from a predator  Both cases, a conditional stimulus becomes a prepatory signal to help an organism anticipate an important biological event  Classical conditioning helps us understand physiological regulation within the body  Ie drinking a sugary beverage, several internal events that engage homeostatic mechanisms: internal blood glucose levels will surge and as blood glucose levels begin to rise above baseline, insulin is released into the bloodstream to take up excess glucose to be stored  Through this process, blood glucose levels can be regulated and homeostasis maintained  Release of insulin is example of a compensatory response- process which counteracts a challenge to homeostasis  CS: cola/sweet taste, US: increase in blood sugar, CR: insulin release, UR: insulin release  Us is ingestion of sugar which initially raises blood glucose levels, rise in blood sugar naturally elicits insulin release to counter- this is the unconditional response  On each cola drinking trial, you pair the flavor of the beverage with the spike in blood glucose levels, thus the taste of the cola acts as a conditional stimulus which predicts the spike in blood sugar that follows  Eventually the flavor cues alone will elicit a conditional response of insulin release Addictions  Just as surge in blood glucose levels is signaled by sweet taste of drink, the placement of citric acid in your mouth is signaled by sight of lemon, the chemical changes associated with drug administration are also signaled by cues  Drugs can have many measureable effects: morphine includes decreased respiration and pain sensitivity  In classical conditioning terms, various naturally occurring effects of the drug are collectively the unconditional stimulus.  Drug effects are a challenge to homeostasis: body responds with compensatory mechanisms that function to counteract the drug effects  In case of specific morphine effects of decreased respiration and pain sensitivity, body counters with a UR of increased respiration and increased pain sensitivity  Over many drug taking trials, conditional stimuli in the environment become paired with the drug effects and a contingency is learned  These CSs may include cues form the location of the drug taking and paraphernalia used to administer the drug  Once a contingency is established, mere presentation of the environment cues will be enough to trigger conditional response- compensator responses which prepare body for drug effects  Helps understand why a morphine addict who is confronted with an empty syringe but not given the drug will suddenly experience extreme discomfort pain and nausea, the opposite of a normal drug effect, these so called drug withdrawal responses may more accurately be described as drug-prepatory responses  CS: ENVIRONMENT-> US: DRUG EFFECTS-> UR/CR: COUNTER ADAPTATIONS  Classical conditioning is an adaptive, dynamic, complex process critical for physiological and behavioral regulation, principles of learning also have important clinical, theoretical, and practical application across all fields of psychology SEPTEMBER 30 : INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING  Involves explicit training between voluntary behaviors and their consequences  Instrumental conditioning: learning of a contingency between behavior and consequence  Specific behavior leading to a specific consequence Thorndike  Thorndike began investigations by studying cats in a puzzle box: put focus on overt behavior rather than on mental elements or conscious experiences  Puzzle box was a small chamber with a door that can be opened by performing a specific behavior such as pulling a rope.  Outside box was small dish of food that provided motivation for hungry cat to escape  Over several trials, cats placed in puzzle box as Thorndike carefully observed their behaviours and recorded escape time  Cats reaction: at first hungry animal would engage in random behavior as it tried to escape, as animal struggled, it would eventually come upon solution of pulling on the rope by accident  T predicted that on trials following discovery of correct solution, cat would escape immediately when placed in same puzzle box  Pattern of behavior following this hypothesis would look like this figure: long escape times during initial trials would be followed by a dramatic step down in time to escape in later trials The puzzle box  Thorndike’s predictions did not go as planned  He found that the frequency of the random behaviours gradually decreased over time  Over several trials, random behaviors that did not lead to escape would occur less frequently, leaving only correct target in place  Suggests that animals followed a simple stimulus-response type process with little credit for consciousness: no aha moment  Cat seemed to be working from a long trial-and-error process of discovery Law of Effect  T hypothesized a process called Stamping in and Stamping out which determined whether a behavior was maintained or eliminated, respectively  Behaviours like rope pulling were stamped in because they were followed by the favourable consequence of access to food  Random behaviours like turning in a circle were stamped out  Eventually, general process leads to refinement and the cat learns the contingency between the specific behavior of rope pulling and the specific consequence of food reward Definition: behaviours with positive consequences are stamped in and performed more frequently , those with negative consequences are stamped out and performed less frequently Four Consequences: presentation of a positive reinforcer, removal of a negative reinforcer, presentation of a negative reinforcer, removal of a positive reinforcer  Not entirely clear how to define the “satisfying or annoying states” which determine the frequency of a behavior  More precise strategy is to refer to the reinforcer, which is any stimulus, which when presented after a response, leads to a change in the rate of that response  Behavioral responses are changed by both positive and negative reinforcers each of which can either be presented or removed Reward Traning:  Presentation of a positive reinforced following a response, which increases frequency of the behaviour  If you present puppy with a treat every time he sits on command, behavior is likely to increase  If you present person with cold drink every time he puts money into a machine, the behavior is likely to increase Punishment  Response can also be followed by presentation of a negative reinforcer, punishment training -> decrease in behavior being reinforced  if little billy teases his sister and his mother tugs his ear and scolds him, he will likely decrease the behavior  if putting money into vending machine was followed by a mild electric shock, behavior would likely decrease very quickly  use of punishment must consider ethics of experiencing fear or pain in recipient  Skinner believes through classical conditioning, when punishment is used, authority figure may become a signal for pain or distress-> a contingency that may ultimately damage a parent-child relationship Omission Training  Involves removing a positive reinforcer + leads to a decrease in behavior being reinforced  clear because removing a positive reinforcer is a situation that a person would want to avoid  billy is watching tv and teasing his sister, billys mom wants to eliminate the teasing behavior but wants to avoid using punishment and its unwanted side effects- she decides to turn off tv for 30 seconds every time billy teases sally  access to tv is positive reinforcer, and removing it will likely cause billy to stop his teasing behavior  version of omission training often used in schoolds or parents = time out procedure; removal of positive reinforcers such as toys or other children around him, child will often stop the unwanted response  removal of a positive reinforcer =/= presentation of a negative reinforcer  important to note that although punishment and omission training lead to same decrease in responding, very different Escape Training:  when a response is followed by the removal of a negative reinforcer  constant negative reinforcer being represented that the learner is motivated to have removed  by performing a specific response, negative reinforcer can be removed which leads to an increase in that responsive behavior  in experiment with rat, floor of one side of cage delivers a constant mild electric shock, it can be avoided if the rat moves to opposite side of the cage  landlord with very sensitive hearing lives below a tenant playing music in his apartment, landlord bangs on ceiling with a broom which leads to music being turned off  landlord learned that he can avoid music (negative reinforcer) by initiating a response of banging on ceiling  four different types of instrumental conditioning differ in whether a positive or negative reinforcer is either presented or removed  important for any type of instrumental condition, proceeds best when consequence immediately follows the response ACQISITION AND LEARNING: CONTINGENCIES  leads to learning the contingency between a response and its consequences, psychologists often interested in measuring rate of responding the new behavior Graphing responses  response rate for a given behavior can be visualized using a cumulative recorder as shown here  long piece of paper flows through the machine at a constant rate as a pen draws a straight line  with each response made by the subject, pen moves up a notch leading to a characteristic pattern of acquisition  may be replaced by automated computer system  output for typical experiment: flat horizontal line indicates when subject is not responding, while each upward slope indicates when a response has been made  pattern of responding depends on number of factors including the subject, complexity of behavior, type of reinforcement used AutoShaping  pigeon is placed in special cage with keyhole, if pigeon pecks keyhole grain of seed is realeased  intitally pigeon will be unware of contingency  over time, pigeon will come acorss keyhole and peck it and learn contingency between behavior and consequence  learning history of this event captured on cumulative record which shows how when each peck occurred and rate of responding over time  notable that behaviors such as pecking keyhole can be learned without careful guidance by researcher Shaping  not all behaviours can be autoshaped, some instrumental responses are far too complex for a subject to discover on their own  shaping by successive approximation: complex behavior can be organized into smaller steps which gradually build up to the full response we hope to condition  each of these steps can be reinforced through reward training, over time, successive approximations lead to final complex behavior = used extensively by animal trainers ie. dolphin performs backflip, receives food reward  Skinner’s experiment with pigeons GENERALIZATION AND DISCRIMINATION Discriminative Stimulus  Pigeons response to pecking a keyhole lead to reinforcement with food reward, child finishes eater her vegetables and is rewarded special dessert  however specific behaviours are rewarded in a particular circumstance, same pigeon’s response of pecking at another object outside of cage may not be rewarded with food  same child may finish eating her food at her grandparents house and be surprised that she is not rewarded with dessert  not only important to learn contingency between response and reinforcement but also when that contingency is valid  third variable added to instrumental conditioning called discriminative stimulus, can be abbreviated to SD or S+  signals when a contingency between a particular response and reinforcement is on  in case of child, environment of his parents home becomes an SD for the response of vegetable eating behavior, which is reinforced with access to dessert reward  contrast SD with notion of S-delta or S- indicates when contingent relationship is not valid  environment of grandparents home becomes S- for the response of vegetable eating as under these conditions, eating vegatbles =/= getting dessert reward  learning situation can be simplified in controlled lab setting Generalization  range of responding can be graphed on a generalization gradient  pigeon example, bird will learn to respond with pecking to keyhole when green light is on but also respond when pecking behavior to lights of a similar wavelength than orginal SD  range of responding to lights can be captured on a SD Generalization Gradient SD AND S-  controlled lab setting, psychologists can easily manipulate SD, S- and reiforcers  training with SD and S- can lead to better discrimination that can be measured by testing several stimuli along an SD generalization gradient  association between a behavior and an instrumentally conditioned outcome can be lost through extinction  established behavior reinforced with reward training can be weakened, if the behavior no longer yields reward under conditions that previously signaled that the contingency was valid CS vs SD  cs is paired with us, elicits a response refelexively  in this sense, the response is involuntary and automatic, in instrumental conditioning, sd is paired with the response-reinforcer outcome but the sd itself does not reflexively elicit the response  instead its more accurate to sa that sets the occasion for a response by signally when the response-reinforcer outcome relationship is valid, therefore in instrumental conditioning, the response is voluntary Schedules of Reinforcement  response leads to a reinforcer on every single trial, this schedule of reinforcement is called continuous reinforcement; very rare in real world  some good deeds are not rewarded and some bad deeds go unpunished, far more likely for a contingent relationship is reinforced on a partial reinforcement schedule Ratio vs Interval  partial reinforcement schedules can have reinforcement delivery determined by either total responses or time  ratio schedule of reinforment is based on number of responses made by a subject, which determines when reinforcement is given  a pigeon on a FR-1 schedule is rewarded with food for each picking response, while a pigeon on FR-10 is rewarded with food for every 10 th pecking response  contrast schedule with interval schedule  interval schedule of reinforcement is based on time since the last was reinforced  pigeon on FI-1 minute schedule is rewarded with food or first pecking response after 1 minute  over 1 hour, a pigeon on such a schedule has potential to earn 60 food pellets  pigeon on FI-10 minute schedule is rewarded for first pecking response after 10 mins, over 1 hour pigeon on such response only has potential to earn 6 pellets Fixed vs Variable  both ratio and interval schedules can be either fixed or variable  on a fr10 schedule, pigeon must peck exactly 10 times to get the food reward  on fi-10 schedule the pigeons first peck response after exactly 10 minutes is rewarded with food  both ways, conditions were held constant across trials  VARIABLE SCHEDULE TWIST  In contrast to fixed schedule, rewards on variable ratio and interval scales are provided following a variable amount of work or length of time  On VR 10 sched, pigeon must peck an avg 10 times to get food reward, but the exact number of pecks that yields a reward changes across trials  Looking at overall rate of reinforcement, it works out on avg 10 pecks were necessary on any given trial  On a V1-10 sched, first response following an avg of 10 min will be reinforced, but the exact length of time between rewards changes cross trials  Works out that avg 10 min must pass before a pecking response is reinforced Fixed ratio  Pigeons must peck 3 times to receive food reward  Pecking behavior can be elicited even when up to 100 pecks are required to receive a reward  Limit to how stingy FR schedule can be  A schedule that is too stingy will lead to ratio strain, subject will stop responding  Fewer examples of fixed ratio schedules in humans, but one notable example are piece work pay scales: shirt manufacture may pay a set amount fo money for every 3 shirts sewed, placing workers on FR-3 schedule  Subjects display a characteristic type of cumulative record called pause and run pattern  Following reinforcement, subject will pause with inactivity before beginning next run of responding  Pigeon who receives food reward after pecking keyhole 20 times, if pigeon is not particulary hungry, it wil lack motivation to work hard, and so, he will pause before starting the next round of 20 food pecks  Its as if pigeon is procrastinating before having to start his next job Variable Ratio  Reinforcement is delivered after some random number of responses around a characteristic mean  Reinforcmenet players receive slot machine in casino, after some random number of plays set around a pre-set mean, slot machine returns rewards  Naturally, slot machine is set to have a very low number of mean payouts, as seen through power of VR schedule in almost ritualistic behavior of players who will steadily respond with pushing buttons, pulling levers, reinforced randomly by occasional modest win  Variable ratio sched is capable of supporting very constant and high response rates: cumulative record of responses reinforced on a variable ratio sched may almost look like a diagonal line with no pauses in between  Although payout of slot machine is random, players know the only way possible to get a reward is to continue playing and so they do  Player may become emotionally attached to particular slot machine he is paying, feeling that it is warmed up  VR means payout is set so low that these concerns are not warranted from a statistical perspective  Slope of variable ratio schedules cumulative record reflect avg number of responses required before reinforcement is delivered  VR schedules that deliver more frequent reinforcement will support higher response rates, so VR-10 schedule will have steeper slop than VR-40 Fixed Interval  Reinforcement delivered following first response after a set interval of time  Good example of fixed interval schedule would be psychology course with weekly quizzes, for many students means study behavior responses will start ramping up just before quiz, immediately after quiz study behavior response wil pause for a bit start again for next quiz  Fi scheds produce cumulative record with a characteristic scallop pattern  Following reinforcement, lull period in which responding drops, then slowly starts picking up before next reinforcement is schedule to be delivered following a response  Pattern makes sense because individual does not want to miss reinforcement window but no direct reinforcement for responding beforehand Variable Interval  Receive reinforcement at any time, you do have an idea of how reinforcement is likely to come up  Subject on VI schedule tends to respond at a very steady rate, ensures will not miss an opportunity for reinforcement  Steady rate of responding as a straight line on cumulative curve  VI schedule that delivers more frequent reinforcement will support higher response rates  On a vi-2 min schedule, subject can potentially earn 30 reinforces in 1 hour, on vi-6 min, subject can potentially earn 10 an hour  Not suprsingly, vi-2 leads to a steeper slop than vi-6 Extinction and schedules  Instrumental conditioning for behaviours learned on a partial reinforcement schedule are far more robust than those trained on a continuous reinfromcent schedule  On a CRF sched, one reinfocrmeent stops occurring, learner will immediately be aware of this change and decrease responding On a PRF schedule, one reinforcement stops occurring, not immediately obvious than abrupt change has happened and no further reinforcements will be delivered OCTOBER 7 : PROBLEM SOLVING  Edward Boring defines intelligence as: whatever intelligence tests measure (fails to capture important cognitive features of intelligence)  Psychologists often make 2 assumptions: intelligence involves ability to perform cognitive tasks + capacity to learn from experience and adapt  Sternberg combined these two into operational definition: intelligence is the cognitive ability of an individual to learn from experience, to reason well, to remember important information, and to cope with demands of daily living  One task that captures the elements of our operational definition of intelligence is problem solving  From interpreting a social situation or finding a solution to difficult math problem, you are a walking marvel of problem solving ingenuity  Psychologists interested in understanding strategies you use to solve problems to gain insight into human intelligence Two types of problem solving: deductive and inductive  Deductive reasoning (Idea-> conclusion): you come to concrete conclusion based on a general idea ie. If you are told it will rain you use your dr to determine that ground will soon be wet  Inductive reasoning (Fact-> idea): you general a general idea given some concrete information ie. If you wake up in the morning and ground is wet you would use ir to determine that it must have rained overnight  Base od arch: facts about world, tp of arch, theories about how these facts are related in a general way  In science: we start with a general theory about the world then use deductive reasoning to generate a specific testable hypothesis about the data we expect to obtain, then through experimentation, we collect data at the bottom of the arch, use inductive reasoning to relate it to our general theory in some meaningful way  Scientists are continually cycling through this process, generating testable hypotheses with deductive reasoning and interpreting collected data with inductive reasoning  This leads to revised theories that may better explain the world Insight problem: special category of problems designed to test your ability to think outside the box Functional fixedness: having difficulty seeing other uses for common objects and getting stuck thinking about a specific function only “good problem solvers are good noticers”  Reliability -> test quality -> validity  Reliability: produces the same result if one person takes it multiple times  Measures extent to which repeated testing produces consistent results  Reliability of testing is important concern for psychologists measuring any effect: especially important for intelligence test because it is assumed intelligence is a static, internal quality  Validity: measures only trait it is supposed to be measuring  Measures extent to which test is actually measuring what the researcher claims to be measuring  When it comes to intelligence testing: does a given test actually measure your intelligence or rather your ability to answer certain types of questions or even writing speed Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test  1900s: Alfred Binet hired by French Ministry of Public Instruction to develop a tool that would help to identify public school children who needed special education  1950: produced first intelligence scale which included 30 short tasks related to everyday life  Children asked to name parts of body, name objects in picture, etc -> tasks that involved reasoning  Different versions of tests had questions appropriate to age group so all levels of children could be tested using new standardized intelligence test Charles Spearman: firm believer in idea of a single type of intelligence  Observed that most people who performed well on classical intelligence tasks performed well on all kinds of tasks – vocab, math, special abilities  Reasoned this was the case because there is one generalized intelligence which he named g  Passionate about concept of g and it revolutionized thinking of time  Sometimes with excessive passion comes excessive claims Multiple Intelligences  1980: Howard Gardner proposed multiple intelligence theory + intelligence test  Gardner argued for 8 different types of intelligence: verbal, mathematical, musical, spatial, kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalistic  Believed each type of intelligence is independent from others so you can be brilliant in one and lacking in another  His ideas quickly gained popularity + today the idea of multiple in
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