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Psych 1X03 - Modules.docx

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Richard B Day

Module 1 - Introduction/Levels of Analysis Unit 1 What is Psychology? What is Psychology? - Most people are familiar with clinical/applied psychology o Experimental psychologists work in research  goal is to understand human thought & behavior The Study of Ourselves - Psychology teaches us how we think, feel, develop, learn, love, interact & grow  essentially teaches us about who we are! Psychology in our Daily Lives - Psychology can be complex – “How does consciousness emerge from coordinated actions of neurons in the brain” –or- deceptively simple – “How do some people fall into a pattern of addictive behaviors” - Thinking like a psychologists requires critical thinking – intuition/gut feelings lead to sloppy thinking Psychology as a Science - Experimental psychology uses the scientific method to collect, evaluate, & interpret information to draw conclusions Conclusions - Psychology is influenced by many views and schools of thought  it is a diverse field united by the use of vigorous methods to understand human thought and behavior Unit 2 A Brief History of Psychology Psychology’s Parents - Psychology needed to break links with the preceding era of speculation to become a science o Psychology – Stems from the Greek Psyche meaning soul. o Only became a field of study approx.150 years ago – before this time it was told from the perspective of philosophy and physiology Philosophy’s Influence - Before the rise of psychology, philosophers contemplated fundamental questions o Where does knowledge come from? How do we learn and remember? o Later philosophers began laying the foundations to finding the answers – Descartes; suggested the mind and body are distinct entities that are causally linked in a dualistic relationship  Mind controls the body  mind receives information about the outside world through the senses – dualistic view became influential to physiologists Physiology’s Influence - 1800s was characterized by technological innovation that provided the tools necessary to make discoveries about the brain - Muller proposed that messages transmitted by nerves were coded as electrical impulses travelling along different channels  similar to that of a an electrical current along a metal conductor o Helmholtz measured the speed at 90 feet/second (not as fast as electrical current) - Muller further proposed that particular body parts are controlled by specific parts of the brain o This was supported by the work of Flourens who discovered which regions of the brain controlled certain functions (heart rate, breathing, visual/auditory reflexes) by destroying different parts of an animal’s brain Psychology as an Independent Field - Some historians suggest that psychology began as an independent field in 1879 when scientist Wilhelm Wundt devoted a lab to the study of psychology o Wundt was an experimentalist – believed that psychology could be studied using the same rigorous experimental tools as other disciplines - Wundt launched the first scientific journal in 1881 – devoted to publishing research o His most famous student G. Stanley Hall, went on to open the first North American lab at Johns Hopkins University o Hall founded the American Psychological Association (APA) which led to the development of other organizations i.e. the Canadian Psychological Association Looking Ahead - Early focus on psychology was on the mind and not the brain o Today, links between brain and behavior are studied o Modern approach draws on many fields – physical, biological, mathematical, social and computer sciences to answer questions Unit 3 Introduction to Levels of Analysis Introduction to our Case Study - Michael new school environment, trouble making friends, bad mood, falling behind in school, social withdrawal, appetite and sleep issues Multiple Levels of Analysis - Problems can be approached through three levels of analysis – Psychological, biological, and environmental o Psychological – most intuitive level; concerns what lies within a subject’s mind  How do thoughts, memories and emotions motivate actions  interested in how these lie at the core of the individuals feelings of isolation and depressive episodes o Biological – focus on physiological mechanisms; structure & function of the brain, molecular effects of neurotransmitters & hormones, and genetic factors  From this perspective, a psychologist may study serotonin in mood disorders or genetic factors that make people more prone to depressive episodes o Environmental – focus on how social/cultural/learning interactions influence thought and behavior  May study the conditions that trigger his feelings of depressions – external influences Unit 4 Introduction to Perspectives n Psychology Perspectives use Multiple Levels of Analysis - Broad view: psychologist can choose from psychological, biological and environmental to help frame research question based on whether or not a problem involves one or more levels of analysis o Commonly explored perspectives  behavioral, neuroscience, cognitive, developmental, evolutionary, socio-cultural Behavioral Perspective - Watson; father of behaviorism  formalized research methodology used in the field o Overt behavior is the only valid measure in psychology  The mind as a “black box” outside the domain of science – simply takes input and makes output  Behavioral perspective – using controlled experiments to understand environmental influences on behavior  Believed in “nurture” over “nature”: argued in 1924 that he could train a child to be a specialist in any field he selected – true stance was not as radical but made the case for the role of environment on behavior - BF Skinner; supporter of the “nurture” view – believed internal processes were impossible to measure  everything about an organism can be learned by studying its behavior o General laws of stimulus-response; an organism will repeat a behavior it finds pleasant & vice versa for something it does not  This idea is the foundation for behavior modification therapy  Used formally in mental hospitals, schools, etc. and informally by parents & pet owners - Recently, researchers have moved away from a pure behavioral perspective and have begun to open the “black box”  bridging the behavioral perspective with others Unit 5 Cognitive The Cognitive Perspective - Cognitive revolution; 1960s – many did not agree with a purely behavioral perspective  it oversimplified things like memory  acknowledged stimulus-responses and not complex internal mental processes o The new movement argued that internal processes had to be studied in order to fully understand behavior Models in Cognition - Operates at the psychological level of analysis; concerned with using models to construct representations of how the mind functions o Models – used to create, modify and organize to explain complex processes  Most importantly – used to make testable predictions  Ex. Cognitive psychologist may use a single memory model – model assumes that information can go into storage and then be recalled at any time when needed – this can lead to other research questions  how can we determine when something has entered the memory storage area? - Suppose this model was tested and the psychologist proposes a change: assumes two steps o Input  Short Term Memory  Some Information is processed and Enters Long Term Memory  New Model  Experiments  Abandon Old Model (depending on results)  Contradicting Experiments may appear  Revise New Model or Abandon Completely - Models provide a framework to describe data & generate testable questions - Scientist should never assume that their model is correct – It is only best or more useful at the time or until something better comes along Unit 6 Biological Perspective and Reductionism Biological Perspective and Reductionism - Understanding the physiological mechanisms of thoughts and behaviors - Purely biological perspective can result in reductionism – all human behavior can be reduced to the biology of the brain - Francis Crick – genetic scientist  reductionist - Reductionism is overly restricted – additional levels of analysis can enrich this method  evident in cognitive and behavioral neuroscience Introduction to Neuroimaging - Early pioneers used invasive methods to view the brain - Modern techniques are less invasive o Neuroimaging used to view the brain while the subject is fully awake  Structural MRI  Displays physical makeup of the brain o Ex; to check if sex determines size of brain  Functional MRI  Displays what the brain is doing o Ex; to check if men and women use the same areas of the brain to do the same task Unit 7 Evolutionary and Development Perspective Evolutionary and Development Perspective - A neuroscientist could attribute increased aggression in men to higher levels of testosterone o A psychologist with an evolutionary perspective wants to find the ultimate cause – why? What evolutionary purpose does it fulfill? Developmental Psychology  How behaviors develop over a lifespan - Focus on genetic and environmental factors that contribute to changes in behavior over a lifespan - Ex; what factors influence alcoholism in individuals and populations? Evolutionary Psychology  How behaviors develop over many generations - Also interested in genetic and environmental factors but are concerned with longer periods of time – 1000s if not millions of years Methods in Developmental Research - Many developmental researchers work with infants who cannot articulate themselves – have devised methods to compensate for this o Example; habituation – a child is shown a picture of an individual repeatedly until it gets increasingly bored and becomes uninterested. It is then shown a picture of a new individual – if the child look with renewed interest, it suggests that it recognizes that it is a new person. Unit 7 The Socio-Cultural Perspective Socio-Cultural perspective - Focus on how individuals are influenced by culture and interactions with other people - Those studying from this perspective are interested in one the following: o Influence of the individual on the group o Influence of the group on the individual o Influence of one group on another  Example: A researcher may create an artificial situation in which a crowd is put into a perceived emergency – variables (size of group, severity of emergency) are manipulated to predict social behaviors in real-life Ethics - Previous case study raises ethical concerns- psychologists must be mindful of potential harms/distress when working with human subjects –must consider the ethics of deception as subjects cannot know the true purpose of the experiment o Ethics committees determine whether experiments are worth conducting and fall within strict guidelines – must pass the University Research Ethics Board Unit 9 Perspectives on our Case Studies Understanding Depression –Behavioral Perspective - Behavioral perspective is only concerned with specific behaviors  behaviors are the problem - if the behaviors associated with depression are modified  the disorder is cured o One behaviorist view – “learned helplessness” inspired by animal research – when a subject knows they cannot escape an unpleasant stimulus they do not try to escape similar situations in the future – suggestions for treating this is overcoming this “learned helplessness” Unit 10 Conclusion - All perspectives are related o The function of the brain  drives cognitive processes of the mind  influences the development of the social being Module 2: Research Methods The Scientific Method - Goal discover new information; must carefully consider how to collect and analyze meaningful results - Scientific method used to minimize bias, conflicts, oversights, and to objectively answer/understand research questions Introduction to the Scientific Method - Scientists begin by studying previous published work  helps to construct a theory o Step 1: Theory – General set of ideas about how the world works  Theory leads to the creation of testable statements o Step 2: Hypothesis – Testable statements; specific predictions about the relationship between two variables o Step 3: Research Method – must be appropriate to test hypothesis. Methods such as experiments allow for the hypothesis to be tested o Step 4: Collect Data – Taking measurements of the outcomes of the test o Step 5: Analyze Data – Note specific trends between the variables – leads to decision about the validity of the hypothesis (to accept or reject original hypothesis) o Step 6: Report Findings – Formal presentations ultimately publishing scholarly articles – process is difficult and time consuming  long review process o Step 7: Revise Existing Theories – To include new information into our understanding of the world – science is dynamic  Paradigm shift – dramatic way in change of thinking ex; Copernicus (1543) challenging the belief that Earth= Centre of Universe Scientific Method: Case Study/Experimental Design - Eric purchases a “memory enhancing” energy drink  wants to evaluate claim that it enhances test scores and memory Unit 2: Conducting an Experiment Testing a Hypothesis - Eric’s Theory (General); Test performance can be impacted by external factors - Eric’s Hypothesis (Testable/Specific prediction); Students who consume energy drinks should have higher test scores than those who do not o Might initially use:  Anecdotal Evidence  Evidence gathered from others or from personal experience to support or refute hypothesis  Could use his friends experience with energy drink (aced exam) or use personal experience (drink one  if he does well, hypothesis is supported) - Hearsay and personal experience not appropriate – more rigorous/scientific approach needed  there are problems w/ using the energy drink on one occasion o Single drink might not be representative of results you may get if you drank it several times o Personal experience might not be representative of others experiences o Cannot be sure that test results were due to energy drink alone (test could be unusually hard/easy) - Experiment  Used to measure the effect of one variable on another o Independent variable – variable manipulated by the scientist  Scientist observes the effect of the Independent variable on the Dependent variable; the variable being observed by the scientist  Examples: Biologist adds an enzyme to a cell culture measuring effect on growth o Independent variable – Amount of Enzyme o Dependent variable – Cell growth - Eric’s experiment is not appropriate  he does not have an independent variable he can manipulate; must at least compare exams written with energy drink and without Unit 3: Control Groups Control Groups - Eric’s realized he needs more data. New method; 2 participants- himself and roommate: He takes the test after drinking the energy drink & his friend takes it without the energy drink o Now he can manipulate the independent variable – (energy drink consumption) & can measure the effects on the dependent variable (test performance)  Experiment has two groups; the experimental and control groups  Experimental group receives manipulation of the independent variable & the control does not -- Allows for the dependent variable to be compared against the independent variable - Participants in both groups should be as similar as possible  if there is a difference between the variables, can deduce that it is a result of the manipulated independent variable that caused the difference and is unlikely to be attributed to differences between individuals in the groups o Eric’s case  should find someone who performs similarly to him, uses same study technique, & same classes  If Eric has the drink and does better  difference is likely due to the independent variable Within Subjects Design - Within subjects design; uses the same participant but manipulates the independent variable repeatedly so as to minimize external variables on the dependent variable o Eric might take several tests over the semester – taking the energy drinks before some and not before others – then comparing results o Problems – can be time consuming and costly ALSO; the measure (test) or subject (Eric) can change, Eric might improve w/ each test or test difficulty can change  Practice Effect: improved performance over the course of an experiment due to becoming more experienced (hard to separate the practice effect from the effect of the manipulated (independent) variable Between Subjects Design - One group of participants receives experimental manipulation o Given energy drinks before the test - Other group of participants are the control o No energy drink given - Participants in both groups must be as similar as possible to avoid systemic differences or confounding variables  creates issues when determining if outcomes are the product of independent variable manipulation or other factors o Ex; having vegetarians in one group could effect interpretation of results  diet could influence results as well as the manipulated variable Unit 4: Sampling - Eric decides on a between-subject design - within subject design too difficult to control test difficulty and practice-effect. o Decides on 20 taking the test with the independent variable &20 without Selecting Participants - Eric decides on strict criteria for his participant groups – issues with this: o Difficult to find individuals who fit these criterion o Being too specific means results cannot be generalized to other groups (Can his results from blonde, Dutch, 93%+ average females be applied to brunettes, males, or even students with less of an avg?) Sample vs. Population - Population; general group of people we are trying to learn about - Sample; members of the population that data will be collected from o Sample must accurately represent those of the population so results can be generalized  Random sample  choosing a sample at random from the entire population; reduces bias towards a specific group  Random assignment  assign participants to experimental or control group randomly to avoid biases that may cause differences in the groups of subjects Unit 5: Conducting an Experiment Participant Biases - Placebo effect: when an individual exhibits a response to a treatment that in reality has no therapeutic effects - happens when patients are presented with a “miracle cure” that has no known effect displays recovery from an illness o Placebo effect must always be anticipated when participants might know the expected result of the experimental manipulation  Students may be more motivated & do better because they want it to work - Participant/subject bias; when a participant’s actions in an experiment influence the results outside of the manipulations of the experimenter o Can be unintentional or intentional Countering the Placebo Effect - Placebo effect can be countered w/ blinding; when participants do not know if they belong to the experimental group or the control group o Eric could give both groups a drink that tastes similar to the energy drink w/o either group knowing which is in fact the true manipulated variable  both groups would thereby be effected by the placebo effect equally & therefore removed as a confounding factor Experimenter Bias - Actions by the experimenter (unintentional or deliberate) that may alter the outcome of the experiment in their favor o Eric might spend more time encouraging his experimental group to study Reducing Experimenter Bias - Experimenter should not be made aware of which participants belong to the experimental/control groups o Double-blind: neither the participants or experimenter know which group each participant belongs to  Eric could have a friend replace labels with A & B and divide participants into both groups Module 3: Research Methods II Descriptive Statistics – Working with Raw Data - Statistics allows us to interpret, summarize and present collected data - Descriptive statistics; information about data at a glance for an overall idea of the results - Pie graphs, charts, and Venn diagrams to visually summarize information Using Histograms - Histogram; chart used to track frequency of values that appear in a data set o Horizontal x-axis; divided into groups of values called bins o Vertical y-axis; tracks number of values in the data set that fall into the bin (frequency) - Histograms is used to create a frequency distribution; a smooth curve that connects each bar in the histogram  it shows a smooth graph presenting how likely each outcome is to occur - Normal distribution; a smooth, bell-shaped, and symmetrical curve around a single peak o IQ, height, and test scores usually follow this pattern Measures of Central Tendency - Mean or average; calculated by adding all the points in a data set and dividing by the number of items in the set o Mean is very susceptible to outliers; extreme points distant from others in the data set  may not accurately represent typical performance because it drastically changes the mean - Median; center value in a data set when the set is arranged numerically; tells us what the middle # is but with the advantage of not being effected by the outliers o Odd # of items in data set – cross off #s successively until the median remains o Even # of items in a data set – cross off successively until 2 remaining points are left; average these 2 #s to get median - Mode; number that appears most frequently in the set o Mode tells us the most typical response  can be used for non-numerical data sets – determining majority opinion Measures of Variability - Measures of central tendencies focus only on the center or typical values o Examples; two classes can have the same mean and median but that tells us nothing about the distribution of grades  the points around the center values Standard Deviation - Measures of Variability; look at the spread and distribution of a data set - Standard deviation; the average distance between each data point and the mean o Larger standard deviation – more spread out Unit 2: Inferential Statistics - Eric’s participants; suppose they were all given a placebo. Should this mean that both groups should have the same test scores? o No, there will always be some random variability - Inferential statistics; allow us to use results from samples to make inferences about overall, underlying populations Testing the Hypothesis - Say Eric sampled everyone in the population  without manipulation of the variable, it is expected that test scores would fall in a natural distribution Alternate Populations - According to Eric’s hypothesis; energy drinks are supposed to have positive effect  normal distribution pattern should occur for the control group & enhanced performance should occur in the experimental group – graph should be shifted to the right (higher scores) o If Eric’s hypothesis is right he is drawing from two different populations (enhanced and normal) o If it is wrong  he is drawing from the same population  To test his hypothesis he needs to compare the entire data set to determine if they come from the same data set - There seems to be a slight shift to the right  slight enhanced performance of the experimental group = 2 different o Cannot be attributed to the energy drink yet! Could be the result of random variation in the participants  T-test; considers each data point from both groups to calculate the probability of getting the results by chance  P-value; probability calculated by the T-test  P-value must be less than 0.05 or 5% for it to be statistically significant  meaning there has to be a less than 5% chance that the results are due to chance – a true difference between the groups - Statistical significance; when the difference between 2 groups is due to a true difference in the properties of the groups and not due to random variation o Eric did not find any statistical significance, his P-value was too high @ 44%  meaning that even if the drink had no effect, he would get the same result (improved results in the experimental group) 44% of the time Unit 4: Observational Research - Observational studies; scientists observe the effects of variables they are interested in without manipulating variables o Useful in instances where ethical concerns arise  Would be unethical to require some subjects to start smoking in order to study the link between smoking and lung cancer Correlation - Correlation; the measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables o Example; the correlation between the length of smoking and increase in cancer risk - Correlation coefficient; r; tells us the strength of the correlation and the direction o Correlation of r= +1; as one variable increases, so does the other o Correlation of r= -1; as one variable increases, the other decreases o As the correlation coefficient approaches 0, the relationship gets weaker. Closer to +/- 1, the stronger the relationship. - Confounding variables in observational research can complicate a conclusions o Ex, allergies and ice cream consumption  as allergies increase, so does ice cream consumption. There is a correlation but does not mean it is the cause. Could mean that allergies are more likely to occur in summer months  higher temperature = more allergens & more likely to eat ice cream Module 4: Learning Unit 1: Case Study - Nicole suffers chronic headaches; worse at times of low atmospheric pressure –coincides with rain o Nicole notices that cloudy skies now brings on headache pains – her doctor prescribes a red pill to her Types of Learning - There are two types of unconscious learning o Classical conditioning – associating two related events o Instrumental conditioning – associating actions and consequences Unit 2: Classical Conditioning - Ivan Pavlov; physiologist during 1890s & 1900s – interested in stages of digestion - Observed that dogs salivated before food reached their mouth – salivation triggered before food stimulus arrived - Experiments; Sound of a metronome signaled that food would be delivered o Following this training, dogs began salivating at the sound alone – known as a conditional reflex; as it is conditional upon training Contingencies - Pavlov was studying a contingent relationship; when the presentation of ne stimulus leads to the presentation of another o Ex; lightening before thunder etc. - Classical conditioning; the learning of a contingency between a signal and an event – it is a preparatory response; can promote survival in nature Unit 3:Terminology - Unconditioned stimulus (US); stimulus that automatically triggers a response – triggered without any training o Ex; lemon in your mouth - Unconditional response (UR); triggered by the unconditional stimulus, the UR always follows the US  usually a natural biological reflex o Ex; Food (US) elicits salivation (UR) - Conditional Stimulus; a previously neutral stimulus that becomes associated with an unconditional stimulus to trigger a response on its own o Ex; Pavlov paired the CS of the metronome with the US of food o The conditional stimulus is presented before the unconditional stimulus multiple times before the CS alone elicits a response – the learned relationship = contingency  The Conditional Response occurs when the contingency between the CS and the US is learned Acquisition - The process by which a contingency between CS and US is learned is called acquisition o It is usually learned slowly – most learning is done in the early trials however - Contingency can sometimes be learned in a single trial – rats avoid unfamiliar foods (neophobia) & eat foods in small quantities & can pinpoint source of illness  will never eat that food again o Called taste aversion learning Unit 4: Extinction Lasting Effects - As long as the CS continues to be a reliable cue for the US = contingency is maintained o If the CS is no longer reliable, the CR will fade Extinction - The CR can be made to fade through a process called extinction; o The CS is presented without the US – at first the CR will be elicited but after awhile the CS will yield no response (gradually weaken) Inhibition - If contingency is unlearned  it would be expected that retraining between the US and the CS would take about the same time as the original - If extinction leads to new learning  re-training would occur faster Spontaneous Recovery - Extinction involves a new inhibitory learned response - Following a rest period, if the CS is presented again, it will elicit a CR again o Suggests learned association is not unlearned; it is a learned inhibitory response that competes with the original contingency Generalization & Discrimination - Classical conditioning in the lab  set up to be simple so pairings are easy to identify - Real world – a CS may not be identical o Ex; WWII fear response to falling bombs; whistling sounds were different every time but still elicited fear responses Stimulus Generalization - Stimuli similar to the of the CS will also elicit a response - Ex; imagine you were bitten by a specific breed of dog – although you have not been bitten by another breed  other breeds scare you Generalization (Stimulus generalization) - In the lab, fear response can be measured o Ex; if a 500hz tone is played followed be a shock; fear can be measured when the tone is played subsequently (a conditional fear response)  Measured in humans by galvanic skin response or in animals by freezing - Once a contingency is established, tones played at different Hz will elicit fear responses – the closer the tone to the original 500hz, the greater the fear response o CR can be extinguished by presenting the CS without the US CS+ (500hz) and CS- (600hz) (Stimulus Discrimination) - Restricts the range of stimuli that can elicit a response o Ex; if fear is elicited by 500hz tones, stimulus discrimination will eliminate fear of similar Hz tones- gradually lowering the fear of the 600hrz but maintain the 500hz fear  Even better discrimination is achieved when shock is still paired with 500hz but not with 600hz - The CS+ is the unconditioned stimulus and the CS- is the absence of a unconditioned stimulus (shocks) - If both are presented together, the individual will show an intermediate fear response Conditioning & Fear - Phobia; exaggerated, intense and persistent fear o In some instances, a conditioned stimuli might not even be experienced (hearing of a plane crash  fear of flying) Phobias and Therapy - Implosive therapy; confronting the CS – CS is presented without the US o It can lead to the extinction of the CR but can also be traumatic Homeostasis & Compensatory Responses The Role of Conditioning - Compensatory response; ex – rise in blood sugar (US)  release of insulin (UR) o Eventually, sweet taste alone will elicit a spike in insulin Addiction - In addiction, the effects of the drug (US)  body counteracts with compensatory mechanisms (UR) o Over many drug trails; conditional stimuli in the environment become paired with the administering of the drug  contingency is formed, the environment alone triggers the CR – pain & discomfort is felt (compensatory mechanisms are triggered by environment) – preparatory response Module 5: Instrumental Conditioning Unit 1: Introduction - Instrumental Conditioning; learning of a contingency between behavior and a consequence - Case Study; o Mike is a TA  notices that after a few weeks, students begin showing up later and later. Any student who shows up on time draws a card from a deck of cards  the student that can make the best hand at the end gets a gift card Unit 2: Instrumental Conditioning Thorndike - Early study into behavior & consequence was done in experiments w/ anima subjects o Thorndike investigated by putting a cat into a box that could be opened by a specific behavior (pulling a rope)  this measured overt behaviors. They were motivated by food set outside the box. Thorndike observed behaviors & measured escape times Puzzle Box - Cat would engage in random behavior and accidentally stumble upon the solution  Thorndike hypothesized that the cat would immediately open the puzzle box in subsequent trials o Graph showing long escape times and a dramatic step down immediately after finding the solution - Instead, Thorndike found that they gradually decreased  random behaviors that did not lead to escape occurred less frequently; animals followed a stimulus-response type process – no consciousness Law of Effect - Thorndike hypothesized process of stamping in & stamping out o Stamping in; behaviors like pulling the rope was stamped in due to the consequence of food  Behaviors w/ positive consequences are stamped in o Stamping out; random behaviors stamped out – leads to refinement  cat learns contingency between pulling rope & food  behaviors w/ negative consequences are stamped out Four Consequences - Law of effect is not entirely clear on what determines frequency of behavior  more precise strategy is to refer to the reinforcer; any stimulus presented after a response, leads to a change in the rate of that response Reward Training - The presentation of a positive enforcer  reward training o Giving a puppy a treat every time he sits on command  likely to increase this behavior Punishment - The presentation of a negative reinforcer  punishment o Leads to decrease in the behavior being reinforced  Mother tugs on child’s ear every time he teases his sister - Punishment is a controversial issue  B.F. Skinner thought that the authority figure may become a signal for distress  classical conditioning & may damage the relationship Omission Training - Removal of a positive reinforcer  leads to decrease in the behavior being reinforced o Billy’s mom shuts of the T.V every time he teases his sister  T.V = positive reinforcer, removal leads to decrease of teasing (decrease in reinforced behavior) o Time out = form of omission training  removing a child from positive reinforcer (play area, toys)  Punishment and Omission not the same  lead to same response by different means  Punishment is the presentation of negative reinforcer  Omission = removal of positive reinforcer Escape Training - When a response is followed by the removal of the negative enforcer o Negative reinforcer is removed by performing a specific response  Banging on the ceiling to stop loud music upstairs OR a rat avoiding one side of cage to eliminate being shocked Conclusion - All four work best when the consequence immediately follows the response; contingency forms faster Graphing Responses - Response rate can be recorded by a cumulative recorder  paper feeds through machine at a constant rate  pen marks each response by moving up a notch - Reward training usually results in step-wise function  straight line when there is no response followed by a step pattern for each time there is a response AutoShaping - Example; placing a pigeon in a cage with a keyhole – each time it pecks the keyhole a seed is released. The pigeon will initially be unaware of the contingency but it will learn over time – behavior is learned without guidance from the
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