1. Extinction training consists of repeated exposure to the original CS in the absence of the US until
there is no longer a valid contingency between CS and US. At this point, the CS will be unable to
elicit a CR.
2. How can drug addiction be explained using classical conditioning?
The CS (environmental cues) triggers the CR (compensatory response), resulting in withdrawal
symptoms and intense cravings for the drug.
3. Why does stimulus generalization occur?
More than one CS elicits a CR.
Generalization occurs because a range of CS's, that are similar to the original CS, elicit a CR. They
do so in a graded fashion such that those conditional stimuli that are most similar to the original CS
elicit the greatest response and those that are least similar to the original CS elicit the weakest
4. Which of the following correctly outlines the process of acquisition?
The target behaviour initially occurs by chance and is reinforced as a result of the reward.
The target behaviour is performed once by chance, as with Thorndike's puzzle box in which the cat pulled
the rope, leading to the target behaviour being reinforced as a result of the food reward.
5. Which of the following regarding shaping and autoshaping is true?
Autoshaping involves identifying an association through random behaviour.
6. Julie offers her two treats for approximately every seven times the dog performs the target behavior
7. Which of the following best describes when and how reinforcement occurs in a VI5 schedule?
After approximately every five hours, one reward is administered.
Variable schdules have liner graphs
Fixed ratios graphs have stepwise graphs
8. What is autoshaping?
The ability to learn a desired behaviour in the absence of training.
9. A VI10 schedule is likely to be more robust than a FI10 schedule once rewards stop. b/c VI more approixmate
10. Chaining operates on the idea of reinforcing a response with the opportunity to perform the next
11. Roediger's Testing Effect describes how frequent testing is better for the learning of material Weekly
quizzes and a final exam.
12. Which of the following statements concerning the Weschler Scales is true?
An IQ score of 115 has a higher raw score than a score of 115 achieved a year earlier.
13. Which of the following is a similarity between the availability heuristic and the representativeness
Both are used to decrease the time it requires to mentally process situations.
AND Both are susceptible to errors, but this occurs only rarely. And more useful than harmful
14. Which of the following would be characteristic of an individual in the S stage of development?
Curtis got quite upset when his older sister pushed him for pulling her hair by accident and just realized he
could have the same effect on her by pushing her back.
Realized that they can act with intent and effect change on the environment around them.
15. INDUCTIVE REASONING: FACTIDEA
(empirical evidence) to generate a idea.
16. Which of the following correctly describes transparent orthographies?
The more transparent orthographies a language contains, the fewer associations between letters and
phonemes must be learned.
The more transparent orthographies a language contains, the easier the language is to learn and read.*
17. The presentation of a positive reinforcer or the removal of a negative reinforcer are two methods to
reinforce behaviour through instrumental or operant conditioning. ▯ Social Learning Theory.
18. The social learning theory of language suggests that language can be produced through a combination
of imitation and instrumental conditioning.
Praise (reward) = increased behavior
19. arbitrary nature of language Units of meaning in language are random and abstract; they do not have a
onetoone correspondence with reality. 20. Humans have an innate understanding of the difference between living organisms and nonliving
21. A recent exemplar affected categorization ability but, according to prototype theory, should have merely
been incorporated into the prototype and left performance unaffected.
22. Diagnostic accuracy was highest for conditions that the dermatologist had seen and diagnosed recently,
supporting the exemplar theory.
23. C onnections between the visual cortex and other brain areas are innate, and therefore do not develop
following learning in infancy The connections between the visual cortex and other areas of the brain do not
require visual input to form.
24. doctors exposed to skin disorders two weeks prior used the most readily available exemplar, and were
not exposed to more exemplars
25. Our ability to categorize well is adaptive and results in an evolutionary survival benefit.
26. While sand is nonmoving, it is natural. Natural nonliving things take longer to classify.
27. Selection refers to the fact that attending to one thing causes the object of attention to be selected apart
from the rest of the unattended objects.
28. If 25% of items are congruent, the participant will more quickly identify an incongruent item than another
person whose task involves 75% congruency B/c 25% person is more use to using CONTROLLED P. so
will be more quicker to see INCONG. than the 75% person who being using AUTO P.
29. t he relevance of contextual cuing?:
Contextual features associated with particular stimuli or experiences help us predict outcomes when we
encounter such cues in the future.
Cues act as links to