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Psychopathy I - Module Notes.rtf

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Joe Kim

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Psychopathy I Introduction Life-consuming effects · Psychological disorder can be life-consuming · Can't move on a psychological disturbances What is Abnormality? The 4 D's · What is normal/abnormal varies across people, cultures, and time periods · Criteria used as guidelines and exhibiting 1 or more of these characteristics doesn‟t label someone as having a psychological disorder 1. Deviance: o Being outside the standard of a given society – thoughts, emotions, and behaviours o Not everyone who differs is disordered o People with psychological disorders deviate in some way from the typical behaviour of others 2. Distress o Negative feelings due to the disorder – anxiety, sadness, or despair o Psychological disorders often, but not always, cause strong feelings of distress o Being free from distress does not always indicate health § Bipolar patients in manic phase feel elated and not distressed § Antisocial personality disorder feel no remorse/distress when harming others 3. Dysfunction o Interfering with ability to function – cant earn a living or run a household o Psychological disorders often cause dysfunction in completing everyday tasks, but this dysfunction may also be voluntary o Dysfunction can be a choice – means of protest (hunger strike) § Described as maladaptive § Prevents individual from adapting to environment 4. Danger o Danger to oneself or others – engages in risky behaviours (drug addiction, violence) o Not all dangerous behaviour is disordered – extreme sports or eating unhealthy o Psychological disorders often, but not always, cause a person to place themselves or others in danger Classifying Psychological Disorders Purpose of DSM = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual to apply proper diagnosis from these guidelines. Has two main functions: i) Provides standardized criteria to aid in diagnosis of psych disorders ii) Use of common language 2 General Diagnostic criteria 1. Origination within the person – crying uncontrollably about family car accident is a normal response to an external factor. Disordered behaviour must originate from within the person 2. Involuntariness – excludes dressing up wild for football game/Halloween · Must be involuntary Categories in the DSM = Criteria for categorization i) Attempts to group together disorders that have similar sets of symptoms with assumption that similarities suggest a common cause and can be similarly treated ii) New versions must be released as more discoveries are made about specific disorders The Axes: (Attemps to group together disorders that have similar sets of symptoms with the assumption that similarities suggest a common cause and that they can be similarly treated.) o Axis 1 – clinical syndromes o Axis 2 – developmental disorders and personality disorders o Axis 3 – physical conditions o Axis 4 – severity of psychosocial stressors o Axis 5 – highest level of functioning Models of Psychopathology Functions of Models 4 models include biological, psychodynamic, behavioural, and cognitive · DSM doesn‟t provide treatment plans for disorders or offer explanation for disorder · Describes pattern of symptoms · Helpful for leading an explanation or treatment plan Biological model– medical/disease model · Brain function · Physical causes – physically damaged or abnormal activity of chemicals in brain known as neurotransmitters cause malfunction o Genetics, nutrition, disease, and stress · Treatment often relies on drug therapy o Drugs to treat disorder, electroconvulsive shock or brain surgery Psychodynamic model – mental disorder is usually attributed to maladaptive attempts to deal with strong unconscious conflicts · Freud believed these conflicts stemmed from unresolved childhood issues o Freudian theory – believes mental disorders are rooted in an internal malfunction (psychological malfunction) o Psychoanalysis – mind and its processes · Psychological disorders may be due to mental conflict in the mind · Conflicts may be due to unresolved childhood issues · Treatment must focus on therapy to cope with underlying stressors o No physical therapy (drug treatment) can actually cure a mental disorder (only temporarily alleviate symptoms) o Psychoanalysis can get to root of problem and end disorder o Today‟s psych therapies focus on personal insight in which therapists try to help patients understand themselves so they can cope better with life stressors Behavioural model – are psych disorders an internal (medical) or external (psychodynamic say internal disordered and maladaptive behaviours seen on outside are only symptoms of internal issues) problem? · Established through instrumental conditioning o Behaviour is the disorder – behaviourism views psych disorders as external, overt behaviour rather than an internal malfunction o Conditioning and experiences – people may find that disordered behaviour provides rewarding attention from others à contingencies, rewards, and punishments influence our behaviours § Behaviourists will treat maladaptive behaviours with conditioning to treat phobias Cognitive model – psych disorders may be due to maladaptive, negative interpretations of life events · Selecting and interpreting information – how you interpret a situation affects your response · Example: public speaking · Identify and change maladaptive thinking · Cognitive therapy focuses on positive interpretations of situations · Behaviour therapy focuses on seeking out positive situations and actions · Cognitive-behavioural therapies (CBT) o Complement each other, man
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