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Psych 1X03 exam rev.pdf

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Joe Kim

Levels of Analysis Unit 1 UNIT 2 RESEARCH METHODS Developmental PerspectiveScientific Method How behaviors develop over a lifespan How to collect and analyze information Challenges when studying groups of ppl babies childrenTheory not specificex energy drinks improve memoryspecial needs children Hypothesis specificwhat your trying to find out students Behaviorist Perspectivewho take energy drinks should show improved testWatsonSkinnerperformances Mindblack box should not be looked into Research Method how hypothesis is tested Visible behavioronly valid measure of psychology Collect Date taking outcomes of test Role of environmentstrong influence on behavior Analyze Data understand date trends relationshipsCognitive Perspective Report Findings publish in scholarly journals Internal processes thoughts learning attention Revise Theories include new info into understandingapplyModelsabstract representation of how mind functionto worldo They simplify complex processes Reliabilitysame output with same input step on scale many Biological Perspectivetimes in a dayinputproducesoutputnot cupcakesReductionism all behaviorbiology of brain Construct Validity ability to test something its suppose toBranchesExtensions cognitive and behavioral test not if step on scale to measure IQneuroscienceNeuroimaging toolsused to examine brain MRI structure Ways To Collect Datafocused functional MRIchange in chemistry focused Case StudyEvolutionary Perspective Single Detailed examination of a particular personLooksinfluence of environmentalgenetic factors onProvides initial facts doesnt manipulate take results given to behaviorsus Looks across many generations of species Problems not able to compare to others or general SocioCultural Perspectivepopulation subjective looking for certain support Looksfactors that influence the behavior of individualCorrelational Studies direct observationgroup Lookexisting relationships btw pairs of variables ex diet How is ones behavior influence from the group theyre in and life expectancyNo manipulation Positive negative zero correlationsmeasures one variable to predict another Correlation coefficient 11 Problems Cant tell causeeffect third party variables difficult to explain rational of observed behaviors subjective interpretationExperiments Researcher makes something happen manipulates variables Binary Variables only 2 possibilities Onoff One optionconstant Compound Variables variables not measured yet still could have an effect gender time of day Problems artificial setting labresults may not translate to real world setting ethicmoral constraintsInterview Adv oneoneone behavior info which may not be able toDescriptive stats present info about data at a glanceto observegive overall results mean median mode Problems level of comfort unintentional dishonestyInferential statsmemory lapse Histogramtimes values appear in setsQuestionnaire Frequency Distribution distribution of frequent values Adv info on behavior which may be difficult to observeMeasures of Central Tendencysimple to collect from large numbers selfreport observation o Mean very susceptible to outliers directed by selfo Median not affected by outliers Problems cant asses truthfulness wishful thinking memoryStandard Deviation measure of data points from the meanlapseso Small basesmall standard deviation Conducting Experimento Large baselarge standard deviation higher chance orHypothesis using anecdotal evidence evidence gathered variabilityto occur by chancefrom othersself experienceExperiment tool used to measure variableInferential Statisticso Independent Variable manipulated by scientist Stats which allow us to make assumptions about the datao Dependent Variable observed as outcome changes as Hypothesis Testingone manipulatesIf hypothesis is correctdata collected from both groupsControl Groupsdrawn from 2 diff distributions Experimentcontrol groups TTest probability of chance considers each data point toWithinsubject design same subject manipulating see probability of getting it by chanceindependent variable havehavent taken drink PValue result of TTest if difference is large enougho Subject to practice effect improved performance over more likely by chance time in experimento 005statistically significant difference caused fromBetween Subject Design 2 groups 1 controlmore true difference in group and not by random chancesubjects similar ppl btw groupsnot all same type of Observational Researchpeople Hypothesis tested by strengthdirection of relationship btw Sampling2 variablesGeneral grouppopulation Observational research without manipulations cancer diff btwGroup to testsamplesmokersnon smokers didnt alter anything Random sample choose ppl at random potential bias Correlationtowards specific group Measures strength of 2 variables Random Assortment assigned ppl randomly to control Stronger when closer to 1 positive correlation or 1 experiment group eliminates any bias btw groupsnegative correlationConducting an Experimento r0no correlationSubject Biases Correlation doesnt equal causation Placebo affect person reacts to treatment that has no effectso Ice cream doesnt cause allergies Blinding ppl dont know if belong to controlexperimentgroup Construct describing a concept in a general wayhard toExperimenter Bias experimenter actions promote the result measure in practicethey wish to achieve Operational Definition exact definition of vague termideaDouble Blind experimenterparticipants dont know which can be objectively measuredgroup they belong to Levels of Analysis Approach diff perspectives that give info Scientific Researchabout diff aspects of a research question o Diff questions about same subjectdiff answers
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