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PYSCH 1XX3 Exam Review

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Joe Kim

PYSCH 1XX3 WINTER 2013 DEVELOPMENT Development: the changes and continuities that occur within the individual between conception and death Maturation: the biologically-times unfolding of changes within the individual according to the individual’s genetic plan Learning processes: acquisition of neuronal representations of new information - Relatively permanent change in our thoughts, behaviours and feelings, as a result of our experiences i.e. Not touching hot stove  could be controlled or automatic Interactionist perspective: the view that holds that maturation and learning interact during development *Learning and maturation affect each other* - Developmental changes that take place in the early years play an especially important role in shaping who you become Measuring Abilities in Infants – 4 methods 1. Habituation procedure: tell the difference between 2 presented stimuli - Habituation: a decrease in the responsiveness to a stimulus following its repeated presentation - Infants are especially interested in novel stimuli 2. Event Related Potentials: measure of the brain electrical activity evoked by the presentation of stimuli 3. High- Amplitude Sucking Method: determines likes or dislikes by the frequency of sucking 4. Preference Method: look where child is looking to determine preference Complete- preference Distinction: an individual may fail a task not because they lack cognitive abilities but because the are unable to demonstrate those abilities Developmental Research Designs Longitudinal design: the same individuals are studied repeatedly over some subset of their lifespan - allows researchers to assess developmental change - Very expensive and time consuming  Selective attrition: loss of participants in a study such that the sample ends up being non- responsive of the population as a whole  Practice effects: changes in participants’ responses due to repeated testing Cross- sectional Design: individuals from different age groups are studied at the same point in time – allows researchers to assess developmental change - Less time consuming and expensive - Cannot distinguish age effects from generational - Cannot assess developmental change Monozygotic Twins - Same sperm and ovum - Genetically identical - One zygote split in two Dizygotic Twins - Different sperm and ovum - Share ~50% of genes - Two separate zygote Genotype: an individuals inherited genes Phenotype: the expression of an individual’s genotype in observable characteristics Genetic Expression – 4 patterns 1. Simple dominant – recessive inheritance: expression of a trait is determined by a single pair of alleles - Homozygous: two alleles are the same - Heterozygous: two different alleles – dominant is expressed – recessive not shown 2. Polygenetic inheritance –multiple genotypes make up a phenotype 3. Codominance –two dominant alleles are both fully and equally expressed to produce a phenotype 4. Sex-linked inheritance –genes expressed on X chromosome – females rarely express these phenotypes but can carry the Canalization principle: genotype restricts phenotype to a small number of possible developmental outcomes – some developmental processes are buffered against environmental variability Range of Reaction Principle: genotype establishes a range of possible responses to different kinds of life experiences *Genes influence environment Passive genotype/ Environmental correlations  The environment that parents choose to raise their children in was influenced by the parents’ own genes Evocative genotype/ Environmental correlations  The trait that we have inherited affect how others react to and behave towards us Active genotype/ Environmental correlations  Our genotypes influence the kind of environments we seek Critical period: a window of opportunity within an individual’s development in which particular environmental stimuli’s are necessary in order to see permanent changes in specific abilities – differences in brain structure were observed in rats raised in either enriched or deprived environments Experience expected brain growth: our brains have evolved to expect a certain amount of environmental input, and with this input, our brain develop normally Experience -dependent brain growth: our brains develop according to our own personal experiences i.e. different environments Sensitive periods: brain maintains some capacity for change and growth in adulthood; our brains develop according to our own personal experiences – flexibility in the timing and type of stimulation required for normal development EVOLUTION Adaptions: biological traits that help an individual to survive and reproduce in its habitat – perform a specific function “Higher” mental processes – adaptive functions of mental activities  Selective attention  Memory encoding  Memory retrieval  Word recognition Adaptions emerge in development as a result of the activation of relevant genes Natural selection – discovered by Wallace and Darwin – different survival and reproduction of organisms as a result of the heritable difference between them 1. Individual differences – variation 2. Differential reproduction 3. Heritability Stabilizing Selection: selection against any sort of departure from species – typical adaptive design Darwinian Fitness: average reproductive success of a genotype relative to alternative genotypes Evolution is a change in gene frequencies over generations Sexual Selection: fusion of male and female gametes – the component of natural selection that acts on traits that influence an organism’s ability to obtain a mate *Reproduction is more important than survival Mating Competition: weaponry used to fight for dominance Female Choice – being chosen by the opposite sex – good left/right symmetry – success in combat – defeating same-sex rivals in mating competition Mate Choice preferences – female picks out males with best resistance to disease – best genes for being healthy Species- typical behavior  Physical form (typography)  Habitat preference  Group size  Social System Altruism: behavior in which the actor incurs a cost to provide a benefit to a recipient Not Altruism: foraging/ vigilance in groups – actor benefits directly from behavior Eusocial hymenoptera: includes all ants, some bees and some wasps – most individuals spend their lives serving the colony without reproducing Inclusive fitness: genes for altruism could be successful if they helped identical copies of themselves Direct fitness: fitness from personal reproduction Indirect fitness: fitness from reproduction of close genetic relatives Hamilton’s Rule rB> C C – the reproductive cost to actor B – reproductive benefit to recipients r- coefficient of relatedness Relatedness: probability that actor and recipient share gene in question – depends on how genes were inherited Cues of kinship - Mother’s association - Co-residence with other children Phenotype matching: an evaluation of relatedness between individuals based on an assessment of phenotypic similarity Direct reciprocity: individuals help each other and both profit Indirect reciprocity: individuals help those who help others NEUROSCIENCE Neuron – cells specialized for communication Two zones i. Receptive  designed to receive signals from other neurons  made up of dendrites branching out from cell body ii. Transmission zone  pass signals to cells  made up of the axon and terminal boutons Dendrites reach out to other neurons and receive signals related through the dendritic branch to the cell body Axon: long fiber – vary in length Glial Cells: provide structural support, nourishment and insulation to neurons Diffusion: the tendency for molecules to distribute themselves evenly in a medium Electrostatic force: the repulsion between ions with the same charge - Large proteins remain trapped inside – potassium, sodium and chloride ions are mobile  outside cell: Na, Cl  inside cell: K, O Action Potential  Fundamental unit of communication for neurons  -50 mv threshold reached  sodium channels open – positively charged sodium ions rush into the neuron  charge inside more positive than outside  potassium channels force potassium ions out  At 40 mv, Na channels close  K continues to rush out – losing charge – below -70 mv threshold Refractory period: neuron cannot fire another action potential until it settles and recovers from the previous cascade Sodium Potassium Pump: 3 Na ions for 2 K ions – moves slowly and utilizes extensive energy Myelin – fatty insulation tissue- glial cells coast axons  allows action potentials to travel faster – as you practice you get more myelinated Nodes of Raviel – signal is strengthened through ion channel cascades Synapse  Presynaptic neuron releases vesicles filled with neurotransmitters (such as glutamate, gaba, serotonin, dopamine etc.) into the synaptic cleft (space between two neurons)  Synaptic cleft contains other molecules which may remove certain neurotransmitters  Post synaptic neuron contains receptors to receive neurotransmitters Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential  Na channels open allowing some positively charge sodium ions to flow into the cell – depolarizes call -50 mv to fire  single = very small effect – many must occur i. Temporal summation: one after another ii. Spatial summation: multiple Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential – inhibits the transmission of a signal – Cl channels open – hyperpolarized: resting potential even more negative Neural Development Neurogenesis: birth of neurons Migration: the traveling of neurons to their correct location Differentiation: transformation of cells into the correct type of cell according to their function Maturation: growth of neurons by establishing connections with other neurons 3 Classes of Neurons i. Sensory neurons – real world – interpret ii. Motor neurons – connected to muscle glands – movement iii. Interneurons – modify neurons between sensory and motor neurons Peripheral Nervous System Somatic nervous system  receives information from sensory organs and controls voluntary muscle movements Automatic nervous system  controls things that happen outside of our control  Sympathetic – fight or flight  Parasympathetic – rest and digest NEUROSCIENCE 2 Structural Neuroimaging CAT – series of x-ray slices of the brain are taken and pieced together to produce a relatively quick and inexpensive picture of brain – low resolution – no fine detail MRI – localizes tissue very closely – structural – fine details of brain PET – learn how the brain function relates to cognitive tasks such as language and memory – radioactive tracer of glucose and oxygen  very invasive – less costly FMRI – relatively clear image without tracer – measures relative use of oxygen – rough image of brain activation – few seconds off EEG – rough image of overall brain activity – measures electrical impulses in neurons – picks up a lot of signals Brain Regions i. Hindbrain – region at base of brain that connects the brain to the spinal cord  Medulla – extension of the spinal cord – plays important role in vital functions like breathing, digestion and regulation of heat rate  Pons – relays info about movement from cerebral hemispheres to the cerebellum  contains number of nuclei that are generally apart of the reticular formation – processes some auditory information – involved in some aspects of emotional processing  Cerebellum – coordinates all movements – error correction  oldest part of brain – found in most vertebrate species  vital body functions  Reticular formation i. Ascending reticular formation – arousal and motivation  part of a large network responsible for your conscious experience – circadian rhythms ii. Descending reticular formation – posture and equilibrium – role in motor movement ii. Midbrain – small region between hindbrain and forebrain  Tectum –dorsal portion of the midbrain – two structures i. Superior colliculi: eye movements ii. Inferior colliclui: auditory integration  Tegmentum i. Red nucleus – regulation and production of movement – less in human – relay station for information from higher motor areas to and from the cerebellum and spinal cord ii. Substantia nigra – motor planning, learning and reward seeking – neurons that produce dopamine iii. Forebrain – largest region of brain – limbic system  Hypothalamus – controls directing stress responses, regulating energy metabolism, regulating reproduction  Pituitary – size of a garbanzo beans i. Anterior – receives signals from the brain – releases hormones to regulate other endocrine glands ii. Posterior – extension of hypothalamus – releases oxytocin (lactation and uterine contraction – love, bonding and trust) and vasopressin (vital blood hormone – regulates thirst)  Thalamus – relay station  Amygdala – two symmetrical almond shaped structures – receives sensory info from thalamus – decoding emotions  good with faces  emotional link created  Hippocampus – memory formation – transfer of short- term to long- term memory – vital role inability to navigate throughout the world – neurogenesis continues throughout adulthood iv. Cerebral Cortex – outside of brain – ultimate control and information – processing center  Occipital lobe- back of head – basic visual processing  Temporal lobe – sides of brain bellow sylvian fissure – higher visual processing – basic auditory processing – memory and language  Parietal lobe - lies anterior to occipital lobe above the sylvian fissure – somatosensory processing (touching) – spatial representations  Frontal lobe – motor processing – decision making and higher order of thought Brain Lateralization Double dissociation – damage in a particular brain area, but not other areas, produces a specific behavioral deficit Corpus callosum – communication between the left and right hemispheres VISION ESSENTIALS Light  Travels in waves  Amplitude = height of wave – variations affect brightness - Very bright – high amplitude - Bright – moderate amplitude - Not bright – low amplitude  Wavelength = length of wave – peaks - Humans only sensitive to visible spectrum - Shortest wavelength = violet (360 nm) - Longest wavelength = red (750 nm)  Purity – saturation - Multiple wavelengths  desaturated - Single wavelength  saturated The Eye Cornea: transparent window at the front of the eye – focuses light Sclera: white part of eye, tougher membrane Pupil: round window with a black dot Iris: controls size of pupil – coloured part – bands of muscles controlled by brain Lens: transparent structure that does the final focusing of light into the retina at the back of the eye – curvature causing objects to be upside- down and reverse from left to right – final perceived image is corrected by brain - Close vision – lens becomes shorter and rounder - Distance vision – lens is elongated Vitreous humor – clear, jelly like substance Retina – neural tissue that lines the back of the eye – made up of neural cells arranged in 3 different layers i. Photoreceptors – translating the physical stimulus of light into a neural signal the brain can understand - Cones  6 million, day vision, colour, good visual acuity, concentrated in the fovea - Rods  125 million, night vision, no colour, poor visual acuity, concentrated in periphery ii. Bipolar cells iii. Ganglion cells  collects info from a larger segment of the retina – all converge on one point- the optic disc and then leave the eye to join the optic nerve Horizontal and amacrine cells – allow areas within a retinal layer to communicate with each other – allow information adjacent photo-receptors to combine their information Visual Pathways  Right and left halves of our visual field are processed by opposite sides of our brain  Optic chiasm: where the information from the retina crosses over to the opposite hemisphere  Optic nerve fibers split and follow along two pathways  Lateral geniculate nucleus: part of thalamus that receives visual information  Primary visual cortex: topographical organization – retinal coordinates are topographically mapped in visual cortex  Extrastriate cortex i. Dorsal stream – “where” pathway – where objects are - Depth and motion - From exstratiate cortex to the parietal lobe ii. Ventral stream – “what” pathway - Colour and form - From the exstrastriate cortex to the temporal lobe Evolution of the eye  Light sensitive patch  Curved “cup” eye – direction of light  Crude lens – process visual input at different distances Cumulative selection: a
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