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QUICK NOTES - Whole Course Summarized - Psych 1XX3
QUICK NOTES - Whole Course Summarized - Psych 1XX3

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McMaster University
Joe Kim

1 Development Icontinuities and changes that occur within the individual between conception and deathTwo processes lead to developmental change 1 Maturationbiologically timed unfolding of changes within the individual according to that individuals genetic plan 2 Learningrelatively permanent change in thoughts behaviours and feelings as a result of experience Interactionist Perspectivematuration and learning interact during development Measuring Abilities in Infants 1 Habituationused to determine whether infant can distinguish different stimuli uses physiological responses heart rate and behavioural responses head movement to different stimulihabituated when response returns to baseline 2 Event Related Potentialselectrode cap measures brain electrical activity evoked by presentation of stimuli 3 HighAmplitude Suckingdetermining likesdislikes by measuring sucking rate sucks faster than baselinestimuli presented and remains until sucking stops 4 Preference Method likes and dislikesmeasures the direction that infant is looking to determine likesdislikesCompetencePerformance Distinctionan individual may fail a task not because they lack cognitive abilities but because they are unable to demonstrate those abilities Longitudinal Designa development research design in which the same individuals are studied repeatedly over some subset of their lifespan assess developmental effectsDisadvantages Selective Attribution loss of participants in study Practice Effects Expensive and Time ConsumingCrossSectional Designa developmental research design in which individuals from different age groups are studied at the same point in timeDisadvantages Cannot distinguish age effects from generation effects Cannot assess developmental change2 Development II Four Patterns of Genetic Expression 1 DominantRecessive Inheritanceexpression of trait is determined by only one allele 2 Polygenetic Inheritancemultiple genes are involved in the expression of a trait 3 Codominancefull and equal expression of two dominant alleles phenotype is a compromise of the two 4 SexLinked Inheritanceinvolve genes expressed o the X chromosomeInteractionist PerspectiveCanalization Principlegenotype restricts the phenotype to a small number of possible developmental outcomes eg infant babblingRangeofReaction Principlegenotype establishes a range of possible responses to different kinds of life experiences eg heightGenes influence environmental experience 1 Passive GenotypeEnvironmental Correlationsthe environment that parents choose to raise their children in was influenced by the parents genes environment will likely complement childs genes most significant during childhood 2 Evocative GenotypeEnvironment Correlationsthe traits that offspring inherited affects how others react to and behave toward them throughout life 3 Active GenotypeEnvironment Correlationsgenotypes influence the kind of environment one seeks adulthoodCritical Periodsa window of opportunity within individuals development in which particular environmental stimulation is necessary in order to see permanent changes in specific abilitiesNow called Sensitive Periods Synapsesbegin life with extra synapses that are later pruned away ExperienceExpectant Brain Growthbrains evolved to expect a particular level of environmental input input allows brain to develop normally ExperienceDependent Brain growthour brains develop according to our own personal experiences person specific13 Evolution I Adaptationsbiological traits that help an individual survive and reproduce in their habitat perform specific function emerge as a result of the activation of relevant genes in interaction with relevant aspects of the environment Natural Selectionthe differential survival and reproduction of organisms as a result of heritable differences between them 1 Individual Differenceswithin a population there is variation among individuals changes of survival and reproduction 2 Differential Reproductionsome individuals will have more offspring than others 3 Heritabilityoffspring will resemble parents with respect to variable characteristicsSelective Transmissioncharacteristics best adapted for survival and reproduction are reproduced at a higher rateStabilizing Selectionselection against departure from species keeps traits stable over generationsDarwinian Fitnessaverage reproductive success of a genotype relative to alternative genotypes matter of reproduction not survival Evolutionchange in gene frequencies over generations Sexual Selectioncomponent of natural selection acts on traits that influence an organisms ability to obtain a mate Selective Forces 1 Being chosen by opposite sex 2 Defeating same sex rivals in mating competition Hint of sexually selected trait 1 Anatomical trait differs between sexes 2 If sex difference is exaggerated or only exists in breeding season4 Evolution II Social Behaviours 1 Cooperation 2 Selfishness3 Altruism 4 Spite Eusocial Hymenopteramany individuals dont reproduce spend lives serving colony eg ants bees waspsDirect Fitnessindividuals genetic contribution through personal reproduction Indirect Fitnessindividuals genetic contribution through the reproduction of close genetic relativesInclusive FitnessDirect FitnessIndirect Fitness Can increase personal fitness by helping kin raise offspring shared genes between relatives can drive evolutionary altruismHamiltons RulerBCFull Sibling r05 Half Sib r025 AuntUncle r025 Cousin r0125Kin Recognitionimportant for altruism social behaviours and inbreeding avoidanceLikely to be kinneighbors those that resemble youPhenotype Matchingevaluation of relatedness between individuals based on an assessment of phenotypic similarityDirect Reciprocityindividuals help each other and both benefitIndirect Reciprocityindividuals help those who have helped others establish good reputation get more help from neighbors2
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