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PSYCH 1XX3 Final Exam Notes

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Joe Kim

Development Introduction to DevelopmentDevelopment changes and continuities that occur within the individual between conception and death How you change over time and how you stay the sameMaturation biologicallytimed unfolding of changes within the individual influenced by specific environmental conditions that shape the geneticallydetermined processes o Eg particular genetic plan in the right environment might lead baby to a specific maturation timelineLearning allow you to acquire new information and guide optimal strategies to respond to events and stimuli in the environment o Leads to changes in thoughts feelings and behaviours o Learning processes can become controlled to automaticInteractionist perspective most of your developmental changes reflect the interaction of maturation and learning o Some essential systems must be in place before learning proceeds maturation o Less obvious that learning can affect maturation minimal level of input to learn from outside world in order to lead to maturation or else will be absent or delayed o Important role in understanding inherited traits prenatal development and how our nervous system develops across a lifespan Studying DevelopmentMore focus in human development is on infancy and childhood o Developmental changes are much more dramatic o Studying early years is an important role in shaping who you become o Studying an infants basic sensory capabilities 1 Habituation procedure to detect the difference between 2 stimuli a Infants show interest in novel objects in the environment b Repeatedly present the same stimulus while measuring changes in physiological responses heart rate breathing or behavioural orienting responses head eye movements c Habituation a decrease in the responsiveness to a stimulus following its repeated presentation d Dishabituation an increase in the responsiveness to a stimulus that is somehow different from the habituated stimulus 2 Eventrelated potentials a measure of the brain electrical activity evoked by the presentation of stimuli a Neural measures which coincide with the behavioural events observed b Special cap with electrodes is used to detect changes in a population of neurons in the brain in various regions of interest 3 Highamplitude sucking method a Baseline sucking rate of the infant is measured in the absence of relevant stimuli b In the shaping procedure the infant is given control of the presentation of stimuli faster ratestimulus 4 Preference method a Looking chamberinfant simultaneously looking at two different stimuli b Researcher measures the direction the infant is looking c Infants tend to prefer big patterns with lots of black and white contrasts and facesInferences and assumptions limitations to the complex cognitive and perceptual processes from just observing behaviours of an infant o Completeperformance distinction an individual may fail a task not because they lack those cognitive abilities but because they are unable to demonstrate those abilities Introduction to Developmental Research MethodsDevelopmental time studies are concerned with repeated measures over time instead of a singletime point o Tracking changes over time introduces the need for unique experimental designs 1 Longitudinal design researchers examine the abilities and characteristics of the same individuals repeatedly over a subset of their lifespan a Drawbacks expensive and time consuming b Selective attrition some participants may quit become unfit or even die c Practice effects changes in participants responses due to repeated testing 2 Crosssectional design people from many age groups are tested at once without the need to be tracked over the span of many years a Formulate likely developmental trends through the research b Relatively less time consuming and expensive c Differences may not be reflective of true developmental changes or due to generational effects i Everyone was born in a different year d Are not directly tracking changes with age single timepoint Introduction to Hereditary TransmissionA new cell is formed zygote when a sperm penetrates an ovumIt has 46 chromosomes 23 from each parentsChromosome threadlike structure made from deoxyribonucleic acidGenes provide chemical code for developmentZygote divides at exponential rate until at birth billions of diff cells each with same 46 chromosomesMonozygotic twins genetically identical same sperm and ovum and the zygote splits into twoDizygotic twins come from two different sperm and ova and start off as two diff zygotesMale determines the gender of the child o Female always passes on X chromosome while it is up to father to pass on an X or a YGenotype an individuals inherited genesPhenotype the expression of an individuals genotype in terms of observable characteristics Genetic Expression 1 Simple dominantrecessive pattern of inheritance a Expression of a trait is determined by a single pair of genes alleles b One allele is inherited from each parentdetermines phenotypic expression for a particular trait c Homozygous two alleles are same and same effect on phenotype d Heterozygous two alleles are different and have different effects on phenotype i Only dominant allele is expressed by the phenotype ii The carrier allele that isnt expressed is called recessive 2 Polygenetic inheritance phenotypic expression of a trait is expressed by multiple pairs of genesa Many traits like height and weight are determined by the interaction of multiple genes b No single gene can account for most complex behaviours 3 Codominance two dominant alleles are both fully and equally expressed to produce a phenotype compromise between 2 genes 4 Sexlinked inheritance a Some recessive genes on X chromosome are responsible for disorders colour blindnesshemophilia b Females2 X chromosomes therefore phenotypic expression of recessive allele less frequentlyc Males1 X chromosome recessive allele is passed on d Females rarely express sexlinked recessive gene disorders in their phenotype can be carriers The Interactionist PerspectiveExtreme behaviourist point of view some scientists believed that nurture was allimportant development largely independent of genetic factorsGenetic point of view who you became was largely predetermined by inherited genes and that the environment had a minimal effectCanalization principle genotype restricts the phenotype to a small number of possible developmental outcomes o Some developmental processes are buffered against environmental variability o Babbling exampleall infants babble in the same way despite range of language culturesIt is only later that cultural influences shape the final phonemesRangeofReaction principle genotype establishes a range of possible responses to a different kind of life experienceso eg height is influenced by genes and environment o determined by proper nutrition sleep and exercise o genes determine the range of potential for different traits and input received from environment influences how the genotype is expressed as a phenotypeGenes can also influence the type of environment that you seek out o Passive genotypeenvironment correlations the environment that parents choose to raise their children in was influenced by the parents own genes o Evocative correlations the traits that we have inherited affect how others react to and behave towards usGenes can affect your social environment o Active genotypeenvironment correlations your genotypes influence the kinds of environments that you seek Introduction to Critical PeriodsSuper babies through classical music o Critical period a window of opportunity within an individuals development in which particular environmental stimulation necessary in order to see permanent changes in specific abilitiesAfter critical period the same environmental stimulation will not have the same benefitEg measuring the time period when kittens were visually deprived after 46 weeks of being visually deprived kittens become permanently unable to discriminate visual patterns properlyAnother kitten was deprived for the same amount of time but during a different period in its life yet its visual abilities were unaffectedEg rats raised in an enriched environment toys social stimulation have more connections between neurons than rats raised in a deprived environment o Speculations that extra stimulation during critical periods should happen as early as possible in development to maximize the gains o Leap in thinking leads to
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