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Evolution I,II Key terms.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1XX3
Professor
Joe Kim

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Evolution I & II- Key Terms Adaption: Biological traits or characteristics that help an individual survive And reproduce in its habitat.Adaptations are always “for” something, they perform Specific functions that make an organism better suited to its environment. Examples: • Human Eyes- enable us to recognize and respond effectively to things, • Raccoons – primarily nocturnal animals, therefore they have good night vision, their front paws are so sensitive they can virtually see with them to scavenge for food. • Bats – bats can navigate the night skies and look for food with their echo-location system Adaptions perspective: To understand how we manage to see, hear, respond to stimuli  scientists break these problems down into sub-tasks: how do you detect edges? How do you assess the speed of an object or perceive a threat? Then… you can look for processes that are capable of those tasks (relevant adaptations). Scientists categorized as “adaptationists” use this label to describe how hypotheses about adaptive function guide their investigations. What about “higher” mental processes… selective attention, memory encoding, memory retrieval, etc.? They refer to the adaptive functions of mental activity. The adaptive functions evolved like all other adaptations – through natural selection.Adaptations emerge in development as a result of activation of relevant genes in interaction with relevant aspects of the environment. Altruism: Behaviour in which the actor incurs a cost to provide a benefit to a Recipient. Not Altruism: Foraging/vigilance in groups because actor gains directly from behaviour. (The Goose, and bird example are not examples of altruism.) Behavioural genetics: The study of the genetic underpinnings of behavioral phenotypes such as eating or mating activity, substance abuse, social attitudes, violence, and mental abilities. Coefficient of relatedness (r): Probability that actor and recipient share gene in question. Depends on how genes were inherited Example: In humans we inherit two copies of every gene  one from mom and One from dad, however these copies are not always identical. Moreover, the one You pass to your offspring and the ones mom and dad R Values: Full Sibling (same mother & father): 0.5 Half Sibling (same mother or same father): 0.25 Aunts & Uncles: 0.25 First Cousins: 0.125 Monozygotic Twin : 1.00 Dizygotic Twin: 0.5 Cooperation : personal gain and gain for someone else. Hockey example ; On a hockey team there is 6 players, one of the players Billy isn’t the best player but without him you couldn’t play because you would be short players. So you decide that you might be able to teach him how to play better. Assume : Cost of teaching < Benefit of being on a winning team What looks like a cost in the short term may pay off in the long term (Cooperation) Cues of Kinship: Cues of Kinship (How do children know their mother/siblings) • Mother’s association (rearing, breastfeeding, etc.) • Co-residence with other children Darwinian Fitness: Average reproductive success of a genotype relative to alternative genotypes. (Note that fitness has nothing to do w/ biggest, strongest, and fastest I.E. physical fitness) Direct Fitness: Fitness from personal reproduction. Hamilton’s rule: The reproductive benefit to the recipients (B) multiplied by the Probability that the recipients actually have identical copies of the same gene, or Coefficient of relatedness (r), must be greater than the productive cost to the actor (C). rB>C=altrusticact occouring Ex.: J. Haladane sacrificing 3 brothers C=1 B=3 r= 0.5 (.5)(3)>1=Truestatement;thereitisaltruism C=1 B=1 r=0.5 (.5)(1) < 1= doesn’t fit the statement; Not altruism C=1 B=2 R=0.5 (.5)(2)=1Statmentisindiffrent;Not Altruism Inclusive Fitness: Directfitness+Indirect Fitness=InclusiveFitness • This means that you can increase your fitness by helping kin to successfully raise Their offspring, sometimes even when doing so has negative effects on your own Direct fitness. • Because of inclusive fitness, natural selection can not only favour bavahiours that Increase an individual’s own reproductive success but also behaviours that In
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