Study Guides (238,633)
Canada (115,266)
Psychology (925)
PSYCH 2AA3 (49)

Psych 2AA3 - midterm 2.docx

20 Pages
Unlock Document

Jennifer Ostovich

Psych 2AA3 – Midterm 2 Cognitive development 1: Piaget (Oct 10 ) th Jean Piaget - Biologist: maturational perspective (biological unfolding); biology is important for cognitive development, biological unfolding that goes along with the ability to use experience to develop cognitively - No point of giving small children experiences beyond their ability of knowledge - How do we understand world around us? Where are our thoughts come from? - His work with Binet test (아동지능검사): kids can‟t grasp certain things correctly, they make consistent errors of reasoning; by making errors to solve problems, they actually get better, understand and cognitively develop Key ideas - Intelligence is an adaptive, basic life function: intellectual activity brings us to a state of cognitive equilibrium. For example, intelligence develops to help you alive, allow us to function in the world - What is cognitive equilibrium? It is development of increasingly complex schemes (what do you know to explain your world?) - Kids are active, motivated learners: discomfort is caused by cognitive disequilibrium and equilibrium relieves discomfort - Kids construct their own knowledge: BUT within the confines of what they already know How do kids construct and modify their schemes? - Schemes are cognitive structure that is active, continually changing, and developing - Organization and Adaptation 1) Assimilation (adaptation): taking in new information or experiences and adding them into our existing ideas Ex) 4 leg creature in you scheme is a dog => is a horse dog? 2) Accommodation: it is cognitive process of revising existing cognitive schemas, perceptions, understanding. So new information can be incorporated Ex2) is a horse dog? => ask your mom, get information => re-organize your data Ex3) it is very similar to process of developing theory: develop theory => evidence supporting theories => accommodate to new incoming data Adaptation to a new object 1: when assimilation works… - Equilibrium (specific creature of cat)=> disequilibrium (is this cat too?)=> assimilation (add to your existing scheme of cat) => equilibrium (it fits my cat scheme, there are more than one cat!) Adaptation to a new object 2: when assimilation doesn‟t work… - Equilibrium =>disequilibrium => assimilation =>disequilibrium(this does not fit my bird scheme) => accommodation (ask mom, get information, revise existing schema) =>organization (create new schema) Summary so far - Goal of intelligence is to create a balance between what we know and what we experience (equilibration) - Cognitive development is motivated by a sense of discomfort when the balance between what we know and what we experience is disrupted (disequilibrium) - We achieve equilibrium through the processes of organization and adaptation Stage Theory Basics of Piaget - The four stages; sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations - These four stages are qualitatively different; each stage contains different thinking and there are major accommodations on each stages. After accommodation had been made, there is no going back - Re-organization of how you approach to world, how children think form birth to pre-teen age - Invariant order: you cannot skip the stages, next stage is depend on prior stage - Universal: everyone does this way, can be slightly different across culture BUT they all seem to follow pattern - Ages: ages are approximate; there could be few months difference due to difference in environment and biological factor 1) Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 yrs) – what they can sense? What do newborns do? What‟s their ability? What is preamble thinking? - Preamble: how did Piaget study infant intelligence? - Longitudinal design: but difficult to excess to observe their life because most of parent do now allow him to observe their child - Naturalistic observation: so Piaget observed his children - Experimental manipulation: he did various experiments do determine this, but they were still naturalistic; but his kids were quite unaffected by what he did But.. - Sample size: it was quite small; only 3 children - Genetic similarity: they share gene! They are children of Piaget - Bias: since he is their parents, „bias‟ may exist - Since he published his own work, others were able to replicate it. What he found was able to generalize to other kids, but it was really dangerous  Problem solving skills – newborns learn how to solve the problem during this stages, and there are 6 sub-stages describing development from reflexive to reflective thinking (what adults like) - Newborns are born with „reflexes‟ which is basic of intelligence; through their stages, reflex machine changes to thinking machine. - At the end of this stage (age of 2 yrs), they will eventually ready to be verbal and use imagery - Their reflex-behavior is based on their sense input and sensory motor output (sensorimotor) ① Substage 1: reflex activity (birth to 1 month) - Infants are born with some basic reflex abilities - „Mindless‟exercising of reflex Ex) touching their lips – reflexively they start sucking (there‟s no purpose of doing it) – schemes that usually born with; passively - Babies are getting better and better using those reflexes by figuring out how to use reflexes => adult‟s intelligence - Grasping schemes, sucking schemes, looking scheme - baby‟s schemes for interacting with the world - They need practices to get used to it! ② Substage 2 (actively-for purposeful use): primary circular reaction (1 to 4 months) - Use of reflex-based schemes to replicate interesting body-related events - By accident, you discover something pleasurable behavior! (no thought process, they just discover) Ex) when babies accidently discover that sucking on their finger is wonderful, they organize their behavior to suck on them more often => sucking no longer occurs only reflexsively - Once they accidently discover something, they develop sort-of scheme for being able to repeat that - “Un-invited, un-intentional event” => will be first intentional habit (with their body); they don‟t really understand outside of the world yet; they can‟t not distinguish „me‟and „not me‟ ③ Substage 3: Secondary circular reactions (4 to 8 months) - Use of reflex-based schemes to replicate interesting object-related events - Object-related: intentionally – you may find them by chance but you start to plan to make these things continue to happen - Ex) grabbing rubber ducky by accident => again again again - Ex2) 3 month old of his children noticed that kicking their legs => make mobile to move - It‟s not completely intentional because beginning is by accident => sort of intentional - Across substage 2 and 3, they are transferring reflexive behavior to more complex behavior ④ Sub-stage 4: coordination of secondary scheme (8 to 12 months) - At this stage, they put all their scheme together into fully plan-ful and intentional behavior - Can generate their own result based on what they learned with reflexes => create new things that they haven‟t observed yet; there is a goal now! - For first time, the means are distinct from the ends of activities. Means/ task => goal Ex) Cell phone under the blanket =>baby figures out how to get this=> combine two or three schemes to reach their goal (reaching and grasping is not pleasurable goal, it is just mean) => eventually get a cell phone and start sucking on them (it is pleasurable goal which is evolved at the end) - Is this a true problem solving? Maybe it is problem solving exercise - Things are getting more complex: you coordinate many schemes, they really start to understand world around them (they use all reflexes and see what the object does; experimentation in its earliest from, just to learn about the new things) - Babies are motivated learner; they are prepared to learn - Qualitatively changing through stages and assimilating/ accommodation ⑤ Substage 5: tertiary circular reactions; creating interesting events in new ways (12 to 18 months) - Infants become active experimenter - Learn how object interact with another and the world with consistent trial and error - Why different objects yield different outcomes? - I want to see what happens when I use these schemes on new subject - „novelty‟=> more interesting, discovering brand new ways - Ex) squeezing duck (accidently discovered events from previous stage (3)) => can I suck it? => what will happen if I suck it? => What happens if I use reflexes on them? - Ex2) grasping object => let them fall => varies position of fall=> ex) on pillow => will mom pick It up? - Use all different variation of their schemes - After trying with all different schemes, they learn (problem solving) ⑥ Sub-stage 6: symbolic problem solving: symbolically in you heads (18 to 24 months) - Schemes go to „mental‟=> no more errors and trials - Once infants can use symbols, they can begin to anticipate the consequences of actions mentally instead of having to perform them. => Figuring out solution from your mental - Ex) moving hand back and forth in front of her mouth=> symbol of brushing teeth - Ex2) waving their hand => symbol of good-bye - They begin to engage in pretend play and in deferred imitation - Ex) failed to grasp bread => grasp stick to direct the bread toward him => go to mental - Ex2) put down grass on the ground near door => and then open the door => grass are blown => fail => put down grass outside of the range => and then open the door => success. Now infants know the outcome of grass on the ground near door will be blown up if the door is opened! Sensorimotor stage accomplishments - Capstone accomplishment: actual interaction with objects to understand them (symbolic thought) - Reflex => thinking machine  Skills that reflect this accomplishment? - Imitation => Piaget said baby must be in substage 4 in order to do this (need good planning); maybe they are able to imitate in substage2 but lack of motor skills - and deferred imitation: it is the imitation and appear later on time after baby have seen certain behavior; this cannot happen until substage 6, this is because they have to store the action in memory and should be able to recreate an image as well to repeat it - Object permanence: object do not seem exist once you haven‟ had contact with them; object has permanent existence if you once interacted with them. According to Piaget, infants do not have full understanding of object permanence until about 18 months( substage6) Ex) baby knows object still exist even if it…object is not in the area of their perception Development of object permanence - Subs1-2: no evidence of search („nothing‟) – they never interacted with objects; they still focus on their body - Subs 3: search, unless…..partial object is revealed, but they are unlikely to engage in searching if object is fully covered; they know objects is disappeared, but they don‟t it is still behind Ex) half covered object => they can get it. But fully covered => they can‟t find it Ex) if the toy is completely hidden by other object, he will not be interested in finding them because it is just gone! => but having some actions or visual contact with objects => they are likely to search for object - Substage 4: Even if the object is completely hidden, they are searching for object very well => they do have „object permanence‟, they know it is still exist  Still problem in substage 4? but A not B errors: if there is more than one place to hide objects => they get confused Ex) take a toy, hide it on one location => let them find it => they always success on finding the object . Take a toy again, and hide it on different hiding spot => even baby saw this, he still looked at first hiding spot. She looked over first hiding place where she was able to find the object => but it‟s not there - Why? Their minds are not ready to accept the changes of location; this object is come out from A place, so it must be there (somehow object and the location is related into their mind) - Substage 5 : A-not-B error is solved but invisible displacements=> object is not visible - Invisible displacement: displacements where you can‟t see where the object has left someone‟s hand Ex) hide the object behind cereal box, jug of orange juice and come out with nothing on your hand => where did it go? They don‟t where the object is. - Why? they didn‟t see where the object is hidden => They haven‟t create full mental representation yet (through trials and errors, they finally learn => so they can create full mental representation) - They can‟t understand where it might be but they understand the existence - Substage 6: success! Critiques 1. Underestimation? Metal representation? - Most of people think mental representation happen earlier on time - He was not using enough sensitive method and easy enough tasks - Piaget said maybe it is slowly developing, just not useful until substage 6 - Can‟t really tell nothing happens in brain cognitively until stage6 2. Imitation: Piaget said imitation usually occurs at substage 4 (8 to 12 months) - However, Meltzoff & Moore published paper that 12 to 21 days old babies can imitate facial expressions - Meltzoff&Moore, 1997: Newborn babies (12days -21days old) who saw a person expressing facial emotions => will they imitate their face expression? => They do! - Babies who saw tongue protrusions => they were more likely to do tongue protrusions (40%) than mouth opening (10%) - Babies who saw mouth opening => they were more likely to do mouth opening than tongue protrusion but they weren‟t as good with it BUT: according to later tongue protrusion data at substage 4 (where imitation occurs) => we found out that they were more likely to imitate tongue protrusion than mouth opening. This indicates that they only good at imitating tongue protrusion maybe because of their feeding behavior. They were merely being conditioned to imitate tongue protrusion because tongue protrusion was kept repeated due to their feeding behavior, but we are not sure th Psych 2AA3 - Oct. 15 Continue on Critiques 3. Deferred imitation: they are not only imitating a behavior they might be interested in doing behavior with specific outcome. Memory – forming an image => engage in imitation later on - Collie &Hayne: 6 and 9 month old infants observed an experimenter performs specific actions with multiple objects. After 24 hours delay, they reproduced more actions than control group. This result suggest that rudiment of memory appears at least age of 6 months (not 18 months followed by Piaget) 4. Memory: no ability to make memory until substage 6 (18-24 months) - Habituation/dis-habituation research: this can‟t be processed without memory of mental image, so baby become either habituated or dis-habituated; through research, 3 month-old infant can tell the difference of stimuli => ability of memory appear earlier in time - Mobile experiment (Operant conditioning depend on memory): 3 month old infants with mobiles – move their legs to mobile - IV: training to kick their legs; half of babies (experimental) are trained to move their leg and half of babies are not (control) - DV: Strength of kicking their legs = how much mobile are moving; if trained baby have ability to memorize kicking makes their legs make mobile to move, they will kick their legs harder - How much these babies kick? - Result: Kicking trained babies – they kick more than control group; expecting mobile to do something amazing => far too young babies are available to remember - Not-trained babies : less kicking 5. Object permanence: substage 4 – good search, but A not B errors - Response inhibition: inhibited response on A is not B tasks => they know that the object is now placed on B but they just cannot stop themselves reaching A - A is not B task is may associated with motor reaction of babies; they can‟t really change their reactions - Motor search -> intentionality: baby can‟t do this until substage4; but 6. Evidence of object permanence at 4.5 months - Isn‟t there easier task we can do with babies? - Piaget‟s task was not more in tune with what infants can really do, so it was not able to detect the sign of object permanence earlier than age of 8 to 9 months. - Baillargeon‟s impossible event: Frist of all, two infants were habituated (they waited until infants no longer look at the stimulus) to novel stimulus that drawbridge moving through 180 degrees. And then, they are shown two different conditions; either box is present or not - IV: presence of box and extent of degree of drawbridge‟s (112 or 180 degree) - DV: time spent looking at impossible event/possible event and generally not looking longer at longer events - Results:  Experimental condition: infants shown experimental condition spent much longer time looking at impossible events => infants were surprised that because they had expectation about the behavior of physical object that the impossible event had violated (something caught infant‟s attention here)  Control condition: infants shown control condition was NOT dis-habituated by them => they are slightly more interested at the beginning but it was just due to difference between previous stimulus (changes in degree of drawbridge)  This result indicates that not only infants knew box still exist behind the drawbridge, but also solid object cannot just pass through the other object.  In this experiments, infants were 4.5 - 5 month old which is far beyond Piaget‟s point 7. Evidence of object permanence at 3.5 months - Baillargeon &De vos, 1991: two infants are habituated to two different height of carrot (short and long) passing behind the screen - Test event => Possible event: short carrot passing half- cut screen => short carrot is not tall enough to be visible through the window of screen =>you won‟t be able to see it => Impossible event: tall carrot passing half-cut screen => tall carrot must be visible through the window but it is invisible => you won‟t able to see - Results: after they are habituated to two different carrots, the window appearing in the screen may dis- habituated them at first, thus decrease in looking time - But when they are shown two different event, infants look longer at impossible event that tall carrot is not visible where they must be visible on the window  Method she used for this experiment is really easy, simple, short and do not require much energy.  This experiment indicates that object permanence appear even earlier than 4.5 months! Overall evaluation of Stage 1? - More or less accurate picture of infant‟s abilities: it is still interesting! - Hind sight bias: we tend to we knew it after we‟ve seen outcomes - Only real critique is underestimation: with new methodology th Psych 2AA3 – Oct 17 Pre-operational vs. Concrete Operations intelligence Piaget‟s stages of cognitive development, cont‟d Overview - Preoperational Stage (ages 2-7) (no operation) - Concrete operations stage (age 7-11) their reasoning are very different compare to previous stage - What are operations? Super scheme that help you with efficient problem solving and reasoning - Operation is strategy or rule (multiplication)=> be able to apply on many situation because you know rules (help you reason efficiently and clearly) - Contrast two stages: 1) Which tasks can concrete ops kids do that pre-op kids can‟t? 2) Why do pre-op kids fail where concrete ops kids succeed? - Operations changes the way you approach to thinking HUGELY 2) Pre-operational thought: strengths - Can do: use of mental schemes (having symbolic function: the ability to use one things (mental image or word) as a symbol of something else - Ex) internal problem solving: grasping grass example => she imagine what will happen=> make a solution => so no trial need for next time - Ex2) language use: they tight image (in front of them) and word in the brain rather than abstract image - Ex3) Symbolic play: pretend play => we pretend to be someone else; I am mommy - Why is symbolic thought so important? Speed, - solving problem quickly is very efficient. Scope, ( making an symbol and imagery make you think fast), social interaction (you can communicate with someone who is cognitively useful to them) - You can think about the future as well as present Shortcomings - Preschool children gradually become proficient at using common symbols such as words, gestures, graphs, maps, and models but their thinking remains quite limited compared to that of school-age children. WHY? - Thinking is rigid - intensive to inconsistencies: not logical, completely intensive when they make reasoning - focused on superficial aspects of problems: evolved several things happening all at once; It is only one thing kids find most notice - Egocentric: they don‟t seem to understand that other people have different ideas and feelings. They think everyone cognitively think and experience as they do. - In essence, pre-op thinking is illogical: they just can‟t do adjust - Concrete operations thinking corrects all of these shortcoming, but still has its own shortcomings too  Pre-operational thought: specific deficiencies ① Animism: willingness to attribute to life like quality to inanimate objects - Ex) wind is trying to cold them up, sun is hiding behind cloud ② Egocentrism: tendency of viewing the world from your own perceptual or cognitive perspective, and fail to recognize how others thinking Ex1) Three mountain task: little boy knows what is on both side of mountain => but when she ask what she can see on her side => he gives same things what he sees on his side => he hasn‟t figure out yet that people has different experience from him Ex2) Egocentric speech: I am sure you know what I am exactly talking about; reading kids a story => let kids to tell story back => they leave some part of story to allow him to speak => she think he know what she knows - Example from video clip) little kids explaining star wars movie => not in details ③ Centration (narrowly focused thought): when you are centering on problem, ignoring other aspects of problem, tends to focus on one happening; they cannot see or understand more than one concept at one time - Ex1) conservation tasks: no generalization to another tasks  Conservation of number (approx. age5): see if kids understand changes of superficial of appearance => they captured by length difference (not depth, number ) Psych 2AA3 – Oct 18 th  Conservation of volume (1-2years after number): tall glass vs. Short-wide glass. Which one has more?  Conversation of mass (same time as volume): circle shape vs. narrow shape clay. Which one has more? => sausage has more clay because it is longer than that - They get the superficial change that no clay has been added or taken away  Conservation of length (2-3yrs after number): it takes little bit longer to accomplish. - Two length of sticks with same length => shift one over => they think shifted one is longer, this is because they only look at the one area (probably edge)  Conservation of weight: (same time as length): teach how to scale works-> put clay on the scale => do they weight same? => take them out from scale => make one like sausage => which one weight more? - They already have conversation mass => „weight‟ and „mass‟ is different => they are having problem to apply to other things What these errors? - „centration‟ – focus on most salient single feature of situation; they only care about the length, not density and number of chips - Decentration – something has to happen in order to solve the task = can keep in mind many features of situation - R
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 2AA3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.