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Psych 2AA3 - textbook summary for midterm 2.docx

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Jennifer Ostovich

Psych 2AA3 Textbook reading – midterm 2 Ch6 – Theories of cognitive development How does thinking change as children develop, and why do these changes take place? Module 6.1: Setting the stage: Piaget’s theory 1. Basic Principle of Piaget’s Theory - Children are naturally curious, so they construct their understanding of the world by their own - How do they construct their world? - Assimilation: occurs when new experiences are readily incorporated into a child’s existing theories Ex) Butter flies are bugs with big wings => the second butter fly differed in color but was still a bug with big wings! So it is butter fly - Accommodation: occurs when a child’s theories are modified based on experience - Ex) Kat corrected him, it is in fact a moth! Butter flies are bugs with thinner body and moth are bugs with bigger body - Child as a scientist: when scientists find that a theory contains critical flaws, they must create a new theory that draws upon the older theory but is fundamentally different - According to Piaget, theses revolutionary changes I thought occur three times over the life span, at approximately 2, 7, and 11 years of age. 2. Four stages of cognitive development ① The sensory motor stage (birth to age 2) ② The preoperational stage (age 2 to 6) ③ The concrete operational stage (age 7 to 11) ④ The formal operational stage ( age 11 and up) 3. Children’s lives - teaching practices that foster cognitive growth-educational implications for taching practices that promote cognitive growth: ① facilitate rather than direct children’s learning – teacher would better provide children with materials that allow them to discover the complementarity themselves than ② recognize individual differences when teaching – instruction is most effective when it is tailored to individual students ③ be sensitive to children’s readiness to learn – the best teaching experiences are slightly ahead of the children’s current level of thinking ④ emphasize exploration and interaction – teacher should encourage children to look at the consistency of their thinking but then let children take the lead in sorting out the inconsistencies 6.2 Modern theories of cognitive development Psych 2AA3 Textbook reading – midterm 2 1. The sociocultural perspective: Vygotsky’s Theory - children are products of their culture; children’s cognitive development is not only brought about by social interaction, but it is also inseparable from the cultural contexts in which children live - intersubjectivity: mutual, shared understanding among participants in an activity; solving puzzles together, they share an understanding of the goals and their roles  the zone of proximal development: the difference between what children can do with assistance and what he can do alone - child doesn’t know where to start to clean the room, so mom can help the child accomplish what she cannot do by herself - cognition develops first in a social setting and only gradually comes under the child’s independent control  Scaffolding: a teaching style that matches the amount of assistance to the leaner’s needs - As the child becomes capable of doing more of the task herself, the amount of assistance decreases until eventually she performs the task completely; zipping started by teacher, but must be done by child How do parents in different cultures scaffold their children’s learning? - The novel toy is given to toddler in four different cultural settings - What will parents do? - Parents worldwide try to simplify learning tasks for their children, but the methods that they use to scaffold learning vary across cultures; some used only verbal instruction/gesture, some did complex part of task  Private Speech: comments not directed to others but intended to help children regulate their own behavior - Private speech => inner speech (thought) - It is not egocentric and nonsocial, it is in fact communicating with the self - Use more private speech in harder tasks - Apprenticeship: collaboration between expertise and novice 2. Information processing (page 193 - 200) - Information-processing theory: proposes that human cognition consists of mental hardware and mental software - Mental hardware has three components; sensory memory, working memory, and long-term memory 1) Sensory memory: type of memory where information is held very briefly in raw, unanalyzed from 2) Working memory: the site of ongoing activity; RAM 3) Long-term memory: a limitless, permanent storehouse of knowledge of the world; hard drive Psych 2AA3 Textbook reading – midterm 2 - Central executive: coordinating all these activities like computer’s operating system – vista 3. Changes in information processing in child - Inhibitory process: prevent task-irrelevant information from entering working memory - Automatic processes: cognitive activities that require virtually no effort - Theses mechanism is a steady age-related increase in cognitive skills; it is not qualitive, it is quantitive 4. Core-knowledge Theories - it propose distinctive domains of knowledge, some of which are acquired very early in life (innate); language, understanding objects and people 6.3 Understanding in core domains 1) understanding objects and their properties - Understanding object permanence in earlier age than Piaget claimed; what he claimed was 8 to 9 months, but 4.5 month old infant look longer at unrealistic event than the realistic event - They also know that objects move along c
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