How Does Moral Reasoning Develop
Need concrete operations like conventional reasoning. (TOM and Decantation)
Theory of Mind someone else has an idea of what is right or wrong
Decent ration Have to be able to take in one or more things at a time
Need formal operations to use postconventional reasoning
What is my ideal culture like, could be contrary to fact. In order to move to pinnacle of moral reasoning, have to be able to use
Not many people achieve this because not many people achieve in postconventional reasoning.
Contrary to Fact Reasoning
Need types of discussion that challenge your ideas and make you experience disequilibrium.
If you learn something new you are in disequilibrium and you have to equilibrate to make yourself feel better.
Link to Moral Behaviour?
Positive Significant correlational being pro social and moral reasoning level. Negative correlation with levels of moral
reasoning and engaging in anti social behaviour. Teenage attitudes towards how acceptable violence is, resonates with their
level of moral reasoning
Gregg et. al. (1994) on delinquits
Delinquits whether they are aggressive or not, have lower stage of moral reasoning, then matched non delinquits. Matched on
several factors (IQ, etc.)
Results: Delinquits were very unlikely to have received conventional type reasoning (stage 3). 80% of them have not done this.
In control, 2/3 of them achieve stage 3 or higher.
Kolhberg’s (1975) Cheaters
Gave them the opportunity to cheat by leaving the room, these are university students so their marks counted.
Post conventional reasoners weren’t likely to cheat
Conventional reasoners, more then half didn’t cheat. Statistically more like pre conventional then post.
Pre conventional reasoners, nearly 70% cheated.
People in the extremes of anything are easier to predict then the middle
Post elaborate notation that some things are wrong because they are unfair, etc.
Pre conventional they don’t care about anything, they want whatever they can thats good
Conventional reasoners only don’t seem to think as hard. They may belong to a group that values being smart is more
important then honest, or vice versa. Conventional reasoners are hard to predict.
Linked in not perfect, one can reason to principles, but not live up to the principles. Post conventional are a lot more likely to
live up to them
Found that stages in moral reasoning unfold in the same way across cultures
Associated with cognitive development