Phases of Attachment
Non focused orienting and signaling
Orient and signal around anyone around them
Proximity promoting behaviours used indiscriminately, any behaviours like gurgling that makes someone come near them
Roots of Attachment
Affectional bond not attachment, but signalling and response pattern]
Proximity promoting behaviours no focus on special people
Like caregivers, mom or whatever
But still somewhat indiscriminate, send signals to others. No real fear of strangers
Phase 3 (618M)
Formation of genuine attachment
Usually to person who spends most time with them
Proximity promoting behaviour seeking no longer indiscriminate
Attachment figure becomes a safe base
Fear of Strangers
Quite common in children from 6 to 2 years.
Good for measuring early attachment
When attachment figure leaves, so does your safe base
What About Dad
How much does he play vs. how much he engages in primary caregiving tasks.
Dad vs. Strangers
Dad is preferred over stranger by 78 months.
Dad vs. Mom in Normal Situation
Equally likely between mom and dad Dad vs. mom in scary situation
Baby usually prefers mom, tells us mom is stronger safe base then dad is. Attachment to mom is strongest at 2 years.
Ross looked at how many diapers dad changed per week
Results: Dad should change diapers. Men who change more diapers elicit a more stronger attachment.
These models tend to hold basically everywhere
Efe > Live in groups of about 20 and are distant relatives.
Communal Rearing and attachment
Everyone looks after every baby, but babies sleep with their own mothers overnight
Find that babies tend to use any adult female as a safe base. Basically all of these women are a safe base
But if mom is there they prefer mom to everyone else.
Kibbutz > Communal vs. Family rearing
In some situations babies spend a lot of time with people other then mother
Babies who are raised communally are more likely to have multiple safe bases then family reared bases.
Yet still have preference for mom when raised communally.
Post Infancy Attachment
Starting at about age 2, attachment behaviours become less observable
Physical proximity no longer crucial in normal situations.
You can mentally represent your mom in your head, you know she exists. You can sooth yourself with thoughts of her.
Decreased separate anxiety and fear of strangers
Can use social referencing, you can think to yourself and wonder if the stranger is dangerous. And you can come to a
conclusion by looking at mom’s facial cues.
By Ages 45 Attachment behaviours become even less observable.
But still seek physical proximity when under stress
First day of school is an example. Don’t want to be left by mom/dad with all of these strangers.
Consequences of Attachment Quality Internal Working Models
Based on experiences with parents
Formed by age 5
Internal working models provide us with
What to expect from relationships with others
If mom rejects you, you expect to be rejected
Rules for interacting with others
If you have the expectation to be rejected because you feel needy, you will never show that you are needy because you would
Internal working models shape and explain experiences
Information processing biases
You remember stuff better when if matches you expectations or falls in line with your model
If you expect people will reject you, then you will have a bias and remember being treated badly, not nicely.
Stuck in some confirmation bias, with all these negatives that confirm you are unlovable/annoying/etc
Example each receives confirmation of point internal working models, they get something confirmed they think about
themselves due to interaction with parents. And they react differently.
Interpretation of encounters with others
The Strange Situation
Eight short episodes during which baby is separated from and reunited with mom. Interested in seeing what happens with baby.
Rate infant’s behaviour on several scales from 1 (no effort) to 7. (very active)
Proximity and contact seeking What types of effort are they making to reach and stay with mom
Avoidance When other’s want proximity, they avoid mom and do what they are doing
Search efforts other then crying to reunite with mother
65% of children Internal working models tells them they are valuable and livable
Securely attached children
Mom is a safe base, can play and do whatever
Prefer mom to stranger
Cope well with separation Don’t like it when mom leaves
Happy Reunion Mom comes back a