Ties to Cognitive Development
ability to engage with people requires cognitive skill (theory of mind for empale that we pick up somewhere in the preop
Developmental Course shows changes in focus from
Outer to inner characteristics ?
Observation to interference observing to making inferences and reasoning
Definite to Qualified Focusing on one single answer to understanding that multiple things go on at once
Egocentric view point to a general viewpoint Theory of mind, understanding there are different ways of perceiving the same
situation and object
They are thinking about slightly different things
People are Not Objects
Three basic difference between people and objects
Interactivity You interact with people, but not with objects. Have to be able to read people and interact with people well,
know consequences of interactions
Intentionality People have plans, like hiding details they don’t want you to know. If someone is smiling, we can deduce they
are unhappy. Have to realize certain things people will do to hide the reality of what they are thinking/feeling.
Social Scripts Rules for engaging in any type of interaction in any type of situation. School script, like being quiet and taking
notes. Different script for hanging out with parents, friends and going to movies, etc. EDM Raves
* Wizard of Oz Responding to interaction with tree, goes into social script of apologizing and then scarecrow goes into an
Three Step Model
• Kids between 616
• Ask these kids to describe people
Descriptions focus on...
External features Ages 68 tend to focus on external features. (He is very tall, he has dark brown hair, he goes to our school,
he is in our class) Physical and material descriptions of describing self. Evaluate personality, they don't use qualifiers. Are not able to form more permanent trait description, that adults form. If we figure out someone is mostly nice, but sometimes mean,
doesn’t change. For kids one week, he is bad, other week, he is evil.
Internal features Ages 78. Mostly nice today, mostly nice tomorrow. Will use a couple qualifiers. (He smells very much and
is very nasty. He has no sense of humour and is very dull. Always fighting and is cruel, silly things and stupid. Sulky, 11, lots
of sisters, picks his teeth, I think he is digesting, eyes are cruel.) All of this means something, it is a reflection of his inner
Qualifiers and Inferences Beginning of teen years. (He is very modes,t even shier then I am when near strangers. Very
talkative to people he likes, tends to degrade others achievements and doesn't praise his own) Social compares (him vs. me),
qualifiers (near strangers) Focuses on external features.
Other Research Support?
Wanted to test out this model on his own population of kids. Had them describe three people and took those descriptions and
had them coded based on this three step model.
Behaviour and other external features
• Billy runs faster then Jason.
• She draws the best in our class.
• He has blonde hair.
Traits and other internal features
• Sarah is so kind
• He is a real stubborn idiot
Qualifiers and inferences
• Usually nice to me, but sometimes can be mean
• Shy around strangers.
Results: Behavioural descriptions peak by age 8 and then drop off. Traits reach peak around 14, slowly rising after 8. Continue
to use these throughout life. Qualifiers are not present before age 10, still pretty low by 16, but suspected to go higher into
Summary So far
Now we can describe people which is useful, but people hide things and cover up emotions. We have to be able to read their
cues like emotional state. Discussion could go badly if we don’t know t