Rules and Intentions
Express how good or bad Tim is depending on the situation.
Results: When no harm is done, children under 3 years old they understand that tim is still good because he didn’t intend to.
But they rated him worse when no harm was done, if he intended to harm her. When Mary missed the catch and no harm was
intended, he was good, but not as good as no harm intended and no harm done. When harm is intended and harm is done, he is
not very good at all, pretty much as low as it can get.
Social cognitive development runs parallel with cognitive development
Children’s understanding of self and others are intertwined
Children’s understanding of self and others deepen on peel of cognitive development
Concreteness vs. abstraction
Theory of mind can’t understand interior, without TOM.
Three approaches to Moral Development
Superego is developed at end of phallic stage
Conscience > Guilt
• List of things good boys and girls don't do. (Lie, hit, disobey, etc.) We have to Obey this list of rules. If we don’t this we are
punished by superego, with guilt.
• Ego Ideal > Shame
• list of things you do when you are good. If you happen to break within these rules you feel shame.
• We act morally to avoid these punishments
E.g. > In grocery store and ID makes you hungry. No one is looking then you think you should take chocolate bar. But a
healthy superego tells you not to do it.
Erikson adds pride to this
Might feel proud of yourself if you resist temptation, reinforce moral actions as well.
What can be measured rather then emotions Moral beavers are the result of operant conditioning experiences
• Rewards and punishments (Skinnerian approach)
• Reacting to rewards and punishments. They teach us how to behaviour appropriately. Good things reinforce behaviour, bad
things make them less common
More on punishment
Inappropriate punishments teach the wrong lesson
• If it is distracting in it’s vividness and embarrassment, it nearly impossible to learn the right lesson. (Being
spanked, you don’t learn what you did was wrong, but rather not to do it near mom/dad)
E.g. > Steal candy bar and mom notices and she spanks and yells at you. She humil