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Abnormal Psychology - ADHD study notes.docx

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Richard B Day

Abnormal Psychology – ADHD Study Notes Subtypes: ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive (ADHD-PI) Can’t pay attention to detail, makes careless mistakes (schoolwork) Doesn’t listen when spoken to Distracted easily Can’t organize tasks/activities - Starts in primary/high school - Equally common in boys and girls ADHD-Predominantly Hyperactive and Fidgets/squirms Impulsive (ADHD-PHI) Difficulty playing quietly Always on the go Blurts out answers to questions before completed More common in boys ADHD-Combined Type (ADHD-C) Doesn’t predominantly one subtype, combination of both Overall: 2x as common in boys than girls, common in teens. Dramatic increase in diagnoses from 1997-2006 Clinical Estimates: Community Estimates: - Easy, inexpensive to calculate - Expensive and time-consuming - Leads to underestimation of - Most accurate estimate frequency Comorbidity: 70% - conduct disorder (leads to criminal activity in adulthood) 50% - mood disorder 40%- Tourette’s disorder (tick syndrome) – mostly males Main point: LOTS of comorbidity – overlaps everywhere, only 20% meet criteria for ADHD alone Etiology- Psychological Processes - Must look at major problems concerning ATTENTION and HYPERACTIVITY - Hast to do with behavioural inhibition and RESPONSE SUPPRESION - Types of Attention: o Selective – single in on one thing (either visual/auditory) o Attention orienting in space- hearing/seeing something and turning attention toward it o Arousal and vigilance – readiness to pay attention should something happen  PROBLEM! Deficient in people with ADHD - Executive Functions: Cognitive Control o Response Inhibition o Working Memory EEG/ERP Findings: o Normally: right is larger and more active than left - Many have abnormal EEG - More slow wave activity – brain is - Less asymmetry in prefrontal cortex under aroused – right cortex is smaller o Typically how you would much metabolic activity (especially describe extreme in white matter- myelinated axons extroversion that carry info more quickly) – (Hyperperfusion) o Behaviour is attempt to create own stimuli to arouse - Higher blood flow in SENSORY brain cortices – temporal and occipital lobes (Hypoperfusion) o Give kids Ridilin (stimulant) for brain – clams them down - Stimulants (Ridilin) - Weaker ERP to stimuli o reduce flow in sensory cortices Imaging Shows: o increase flow in - People who damage right prefrontal temporal/occipital lobe – show symptoms of ADHD - Low blood flow in frontal lobes – therefore not very active since not Corpus Callosum: smaller in ADHD people Cerebellum: smaller in ADHD people Neurotransmission: Dopamine = primary neurotransmitter - reward system of the brain when experiencing pleasure - Presynaptic neurons (autoreceptors) – could be slowing down production of - too little dopamine activity in ADHD dopamine (negative feedback - deficiency in dopamine receptor (D1, mechanism) D4) - Ridalin – increases activity of dopamine using synapses Norepinephrine - Related to attention Serotonin - Imbalance Copy Number Variations (CNV): - Alterations of DNA in genome – cells ends up having abnormal copies of one or more sections of DNA - Either sections missing, or duplicated Gene Effects: Additive Effects Genes I active no matter what other genes you have – expressed in combination (gene for 1 foot tall and gene for 2 feet tall – individual will be 3 feet tall) Non-additive Effects Expression of gene
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