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Abnormal Psychology Mood Disorders Exam Notes.docx

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McMaster University
Richard B Day

Abnormal Psychology Mood Disorders Study Notes Depressive Disorders: Major Depression and Dysthymia (sad mood) Bipolar Disorders: Bipolar I and II, Cyclothymia (less intense version of bipolar) • If person experiences hypomania – then considered bipolar even though more depression than mania Major Depressive Episode Manic Episode Mixed Episode Psychological Symptoms: Psychological Symptoms: Features of both Relatively rare • Anhedonia, low self- • High self-esteem, esteem, hopeless racing thoughts, irritability, easily distracted, pleasurable and risky behaviour Physiological symptoms: Physiological Symptoms: • Not eating/overeating, • No need for sleep, trouble sleeping, goal-directed activity, fatigue, lack energy restlessness Epidemiology Major Depression: • Age Onset: 20s to 50s, usually late • Point Prevalence 30s o Females: 5-10% Bipolar Disorder: • Lifetime prevalence: 1-2% o Males: 2-5% • No sex bias • Lifetime Prevalence • Age Onset: late teens -20s o Females: 10-25% • More likely in higher social economic o Males: 5-12% status • Etiology: Freud Depression stems from: • Loss of loved object/person later in life • Identified with loved object, becomes part of self o Angry when they’re gone o Anger at person turns into anger at self instead Etiology: Seligman (learned helplessness of dogs) • Experiences failure/negative attributions for cause of failure: o Internal reasons: something wrong with me  Fail test – believe you’re not smart enough, it’s your fault o Global reasons: something important about me  You’re stupid and can’t do academic work o Stable reasons: something unchanging about me  Can never change intelligence, always going to fail • Helplessness: nothing I can do • Problem in the way of interpreting events Etiology: Beck Having a depressogenic schemata – general ways of thinking that produce depression Unrealistically negative views of: • Self Systematic views in logic • World Arbitrary inference: drawing negative conclusions without any data • Future Selective abstraction: focusing on just the Overgeneralization: making significance of negatives (got mostly all good comments, things bigger than it is – reading too much but will focus on that 1 bad one) into something and drawing negative conclusions Magnification and minimization: magnification of negative, minimization of positive feedback Etiology: Amine Hypothesis Depression = low levels of amine neurotransmitter activity Mania = high levels of amine neurotransmitter activity Evidence – effects that drugs have. With depression, they have ability to raise levels in the brain by either: • Blocking re-uptake or • Inhibiting MAO If there are low breakdown products (metabolites), then neurotransmitters are breaking down less Treatment Action: Antidepressants generally increase amount of activity of neurotransmitters • Trycyclics inhibit reuptake • SSRI – same as trycliclic but specifically for serotonin • MAO-I inhibit breakdown Changes receptors • Reduced beta adrenergic receptors for fight/flight • Increases alpha adrenergic receptors for relaxation Lithium Only for treating bipolar disorder Stabilizes serotonin activity – somewhat of a controller for other neurotransmitters Precursors and Metabolites Neurotransmitter: Precursor: Metabolite: Dopamine L-DOPA Breakdown products: HVA • Enhances effect of • Found
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