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PSYCH 2AP3 - Abnormal Psych Exam Readings.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 2AP3
Professor
Richard B Day
Semester
Winter

Description
Psych2AP3AbnormalPsychologyDepressiveandBipolarDisordersandSchizophreniaChapters71114ChapterSevenMoodDisordersandSuicideWhatareMoodDisordersTwokeymoodsinvolvedinmooddisordersaremaniacharacterizedbyintenseandunrealisticfeelingsofexcitementandeuphoriaanddepressioninvolvesfeelingsofextraordinarysadnessanddejectionThesemoodstatesareoftenconceivedtobeatoppositeendsofamoodcontinuumwithnormalmoodinthemiddleSometimesapatientmayhavesymptomsofmaniaanddepressionduringthesametimeperiodoInthesemixedepisodecasesthepersonexperiencesrapidlyalternatingmoodssadnesseuphoriairritabilityallwithinthesameepisodeofillnessUnipolardisordersthepersonexperiencesonlydepressiveepisodesBipolardisorderthepersonexperiencesbothmanicanddepressiveepisodesAlsocustomarytodifferentiateamongthemooddisordersintermsofoSeveritythenumberofdysfunctionsexperiencedandtherelativedegreeofimpairmentevidencedinthoseareasoDurationwhetherthedisorderisacutechronicorintermittentMostcommonformofmoodepisodethatpeoplepresentwithitamajordepressiveepisodeoPersonmustbemarkedlydepressedformostofeverydayandformostdaysforatleasttwoweeksoTheymustshowatleast3or4othersymptomsthatrangefromcognitivesymptomstobehaviouralsymptomstophysicalsymptomsOtherprimarykindofmoodepisodeismanicepisodeoPersonshowsmarkedlyelevatedeuphoricorexpansivemoodofteninterruptedbyoccasionaloutburstofintenseirritabilityorviolenceoftenwhenpeoplerefusetogoalongwiththemanicpersonswishesandschemesoExtrememoodmustpersistforatleastaweekoThreeormoreadditionalsymptomsmustoccurinthesametimeperiodrangingfrombehaviouralsymptomstomentalsymptomswhereselfesteembecomesgrosslyinflatedandmentalactivitymayspeeduptophysicalsymptomsThePrevalenceofMoodDisordersLifetimeprevalenceofunipolarmajordepression12Canada17USoSomeprevalenceratesinothercountriesmaybehigheroRatesforunipolardepressionarehigherforwomenthanformenLifetimeprevalenceforbipolardisorder0422oNoprevalencedifferencesbetweenthesexesUnipolarMoodDisordersDepressionsThatAreNotMoodDisordersLossandtheGrievingProcessoProcessusuallyismoredifficultformenthanforwomenoUsuallyfourstagesofanormalresponsetothelossofaspouseorclosefamilymemberAnumbinganddisbeliefthatmaylastfromafewhourstoaweekandmaybeinterruptedbyoutburstsofintensedistresspanicorangerYearningandsearchingforthedeadpersonmoresimilartoanxietythandepressionwhichmaylastforweeksormonthsTypicalsymptomsincluderestlessnessinsomniaandpreoccupationorangerwiththedeadpersonDisorganizationanddespairthatsetinafteryearningandsearchingdiminishThisiswhenthepersonfinallyacceptsthelossaspermanentandtriestoestablishanewidentityCriteriaformajordepressivedisordermaybemetduringthisphaseSomelevelofreorganizationwhenpeoplegraduallybegintorebuildtheirlivessadnessabatesandzestforlifereturnsoSomepeoplebecomestucksomewhereinthemiddleofthenormalresponsesequencePostpartumBluesoSymptomsincludeemotionallabialitycryingeasilyandirritabilityoftenliberallyintermixedwithhappyfeelingsoSuchsymptomsoccurinasmanyas5070ofwomenwithin10daysofthebirthoftheirchildandusuallysubsideontheirownoMajordepressionoccursnomorefrequentlyinthepostpartumperiodthanwouldbeexpectedinwomenofthesameageandsocioeconomicstatuswhohadnotgivenbirthDysthymicDisorderDysthymicdisorderisconsideredtobeofmildtomoderateintensitybutisprimaryhallmarkisitschronicityApersonmusthavepersistentlydepressedmoodmostofthedayformoredaysthannotforatleasttwoyearPeriodsofnormalmoodmayoccurbrieflybuttheyusuallylastforonlyafewdaystoafewweeksandforamaxoftwomonthsTheintermittentlynormalmoodsareoneofthemostimportantcharacteristicsdistinguishingdysthymicdisorderfrommajordepressivedisorderAbout36ofCanadianadultsdevelopdysthymiaatsomepointintheirlivesprevalencesimilarinotherWesterncountriesAveragedurationis5yearsbutitcanpersistfor20yeasormore50haveanonsetbeforeage21MajorDepressiveDisorderToreceiveadiagnosisapersonmustinamajordepressiveepisodeAaffectedpersonmustexperienceeithermarkedlydepressedmoodsormarkedlossofinterestinpleasurableactivitiesmostofeverydaynearlyeverydayforatleasttwoconsecutiveweeksSymptomsincludecognitivebehaviouralandphysicalsymptomsThereisahighdegreeofoverlapbetweenmeasuresofdepressiveandanxioussymptomsintheselfreportsandinclinicianratingsLossofcontactwithfriendsoccurscommonlyDepressionThroughouttheLifeCycleoAbout23ofschoolagedchildrenmeetthecriteriaforsomeformofunipolardisorderswithaboutanother2exhibitingchronicmilddepressionoInfantsmayexperienceaformofdepressionanacliticdepressionordespairiftheyareseparatedforaprolongedperiodfromtheirattachmentfigureoIncidenceofdepressionincreasessharplyduringadolescenceoAbout1520ofadolescentsexperiencemajordepressivedisorderatsomepointduringtheiradolescentyearsoTheaverageonsetforadolescentdepressionhasbeendecreasingoverthepastfewdecadesoItisduringthistimeperiodthatsexdifferencesinratesofdepressionfirstemergeoThelongtermeffectsofMDDinadolescencecanlastatleastthroughyoungadulthoodwhenindividualsshowsmallbutsignificantpsychosocialimpairmentsinmanydomainsoTheoneyearprevalenceforMDDissignificantlylowerinpeopleoverage60thaninyoungeradultsMDDanddysthymiainolderadultsarestillconsideredamajorpublichealthproblemtodayoDepressioninlaterlifecanbedifficulttodiagnosebecausemanyofthesymptomsoverlapwiththoseofseveralmedicalillnessesanddementiaSpecifiersforMajorDepressionoMajordepressiveepisodewithmelancholicfeaturesinadditiontomeetingthecriteriaformajordepressionapatienteitherhaslostinterestorpleasureinalmostallactivitiesordoesnotreacttousuallypleasurablestimuliordesiredeventsThepatientmustexperienceatleast3ofthefollowingEarlymorningawakeningsDepressionbeingworseinthemorningMarkedpsychomotorretardationoragitationSignificantlossofappetiteandweightInappropriateorexcessiveguiltDepressedmoodthatisqualitativelydifferentfromthesadnessexperiencedduringanonmelancholicdepressionoSeveremajordepressiveepisodewithpsychoticfeaturesordinarilyanydelusionsorhallucinationspresentaremoodcongruentCommonfeelingsofworthlessnessandguiltArelikelytohaveapoorerlongtermprognosisthanpeoplewithnonpsychoticdepression
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