Study Guides (248,578)
Canada (121,621)
Psychology (970)
PSYCH 2AP3 (91)

PSYCH 2AP3 - Exam Textbook Notes (1).docx

27 Pages
Unlock Document

Richard B Day

Chapter 7 Mood Disorders oThe two key moods in mood disorders are mania and depressionoDifferentiate moods in terms of 1 severity and 2 durationoThe most common form of mood episode is a major depressive episodeoThere are unipolar and bipolar disorders and several subtypes of eachoDepressive episodes are the most common of the predisposing causes leading to suicideEPIDEMIOLOGYoMood disorders occur 1520 times more than schizophrenia and as the same rate as all anxiety disorders taken togetheroLifetime prevalence of unipolar major depression is about 12 17 in the USoRates for unipolar depression are higher for women than men 21oBipolar manic and depressive is much less common with a lifetime prevalence ranging from 02 to 22 and no difference between sexesUnipolar Mood DisordersDEPRESSIONS THAT ARE NOT MOOD DISORDERSoLoss and the grieving process more difficult more men than women There are 4 phases of normal response to loss of a loved one1Numbing and disbelief few hours to a week intense distress panic anger2Yearning and searching weeks to months restlessness insomnia3Disorganization and despair accepted the loss establish new identity criteria for major depression may be met during this phase4Reorganization rebuilding lives sadness abatesMajor depressive disorder usually not diagnosed for the first 2 months after the loss50 of people exhibit genuine resilience in the face of lossoPostpartum Blues occurs in new mothers symptoms include emotional lability crying easily irritability often liberally intermixed with happy feelingsOccurs in 5070 of women within 10 days of the birth of the childHormone adjustments may play a roleLikely to occur if mother lacks social support difficulty adjusting personal or family history of depression that leads to heightened sensitivityoDysthymic Disorder mild to moderate intensity depression intermittently normal moods are important to distinguish from major depressiono36 lifetime prevalence in Canadians average duration is 5 years can persists for 20 years or more chronic stress can increase the severity of symptoms nearly half of people relapse within an average of about 2 years begins during teenage years over 50 have an onset before age 21MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDERoHigh degree of overlap between anxious symptoms and depression thus high levels of coomordibity between anxiety and depressive disordersoDepression throughout the life cycle 23 of schoolaged children meet criteria for some form of unipolar disorder another 2 have chronic or mild depression and even infants can have anaclitic depressionIncidence rise sharply during adolescence 1520 of adolescence average age of onset in adolescence has been falling over the past decades It is during this time that sex differences in rates of depression emergeAnnual prevalence after age 60 is significantly lower than in younger adultsRates of depression among physically ill residents of nursing homes are higheroSpecifiers for major depression additional patterns of symptoms or features for major depression are known as specifiersWith Melancholic features lost interest or pleasure doesnt react to pleasurable stimuli early morning awakening depression worse in morning loss of appetite guilt etc This subtype is associated with higher genetic loadingWith psychotic features delusions or hallucinations usually moodcongruent meaning they are appropriate to serious depression guilt worthlessnessWith Atypical features mood reactivity brightens to positive events mostly females earlier than average age of onset more likely to show suicidal thoughtsWith seasonal pattern occurring at the same time of yearDouble depression major depressiondysthymia 77 of people with early onset dysthymia has at least 1 major depressive episodeoDepression as a recurrent disorder average duration of untreated episode is 6 monthsSometimes does not remit for over 2 yearschronic major depressive disorderRelapse return of symptoms within a fairly short period of time80 will experience recurrent major depression2540 had a recurrence within 2 years 60 within 5 years 75 within 10 years and 80 within 15 yearsoSeasonal Affective Disorder more prevalent the farther from the equatorCausal Factors in Unipolar Mood DisordersBIOLOGICAL CAUSAL FACTORSoGenetic influences family studiesprevalence is 3 times higher among blood relativesTwin studies show monozygotic cotwins of a twin with major depression are twice as likely to develop MD3142 of the variance in MD was due to genetic influenceEven more variance in MD is due to nonshared environmental influencesDepressed mood or tearfulness do not appear to be heritable but loss of libido and loss of appetite areEarly onset severe and recurrent depression appears to have a higher heritability than other formsAdoption method unipolar depression occurred 7 times more often in biological relatives of the depressed adoptees than in biological relatives on controlsCombining twin family and adoption studies moderate genetic contribution to the causal patterns of unipolar MD although not as large a genetic contribution as for bipolar disorder where genetic factors account for 80 of the riskCandidate gene for MD serotonintransporter gene two short alleles ss may predispose one to depression Those with ss alleles were twice as likely to develop depression following 4 or more stressful life eventsoNeurochemical factors NE dopamine serotoninmonoamine hypothesisDepletion could come through impaired synthesis in presynaptic neuron altered functioning of postsynaptic neuronNet increase in NE activity in depressed patients opposite to expectedOnly a minority of depressed patients have lower serotonin
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 2AP3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.