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Quick Notes - REVIEW for Test 2 - LECTURE MATERIAL

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McMaster University
Richard B Day

Quick Notes Psych 2B03 Humanist Movement – Abraham Maslow Humanistic Theories  Focus on individuals meaning of life and unique perception for the world; help person achieve understanding, wholeness, meaning  Avoid reductionism; idiographic (tendency to specify; effort to understand meaning of contingent, unique and subjective phenomena)  Humanistic Principles 1. Primary study of psychology should be the experiencing person 2. Humanism concerns choice, creativity and self realization 3. Study only personally and socially significant problems 4. Psychology concerns dignity and enhancement of people  Other theories were narrow minded and relied too heavily on pathological cases (not healthy people)  Instinctoid Motivation - not dominating, controllable (can be repressed), modifiable by learning and cultural expectations Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Three different sources (bottomtop) 1. Phylogeny (evolutionary); animal  only human 2. Ontogeny (individual development); early development  later development 3. Biological Relevance; biological (physiological)  psychological  Level of needs emerges when previous level has been satisfied  Most behaviours are over-determined (motivated by a number of different needs)  Deficiency Motives (D-Motives) – meeting D-motives fills a need; cannot be whole without satisfying D-Motives o D-Perception (D-Cognition) – way of perceiving and interacting with the world; active perception (look for things required to meet needs) and narrow focus (notice things relevant to needs)  Needs 1. Physiological Needs – basic, primitive 2. Safety Needs – structure, order, predictability, security; failure to meet causes neurosis; seen clearly in children 3. Love and Belongingness Needs – giving and receiving love; be part of a human group; early onset and throughout life 4. Esteem Needs – from self and others; confidence, competence, achievement, independence in oneself; recognition, respect from others; satisfied best by engaging in socially useful and worthwhile activities 5. Self-Actualization – ongoing actualization, fulfillment of destiny, fuller acceptance of inner na(continued below)  Needs not in hierarchy – related to D-Motives but do not emerge at any particular time in life 1. Aesthetic Needs – order, symmetry, completion 2. Cognitive Needs – knowledge, understanding, root of curiosity; stronger in late infancy and childhood  Exceptions of Hierarchy o Order of importance can be changed (eg/ esteem before love and belongingness) o Need that is continually satisfied – may be undervalued o Need that is constantly lacking – higher drives may never appear once need is satisfied o Creativity overwhelms other drives o Social standard and moral values may be valued so high that other needs do not matter Self-Actualization  Not motivated by deficiency but by growth (not D-Motives but B-Values)  B-Values (Being-Values/Growth Motives) 1. Dichotomy Transcendence 2. Aliveness 3. Simplicity 4. Richness 5. Effortlessness 6. Playfulness 7. Self-Sufficiency 8. Meaningfulness  Being Cognition – self actualizers engage the world  Peak Experience – moments of intense B-Cognition; transient moments of self actualization  Eight Fold Way – processes that help lead toward self-actualization 1. Self Awareness – know self truly and accept self as is in order to grow and develop 2. No Ego Defenses – be aware of and remove defenses (denial, distortion) to grow 3. Self-Development – use skills and intelligence to achieve full potential 4. Growth Choices – make the growth choice even though our courses of action may seem safer 5. Trusting Judgment – trust inner sense of rightness rather than other peoples choices 6. Honesty – take responsibility for actions 7. Concentration – live each moment with full concentration and total absorption 8. Peak Experiences – caused by experience of real excellence or perfection; are transforming and strengthening  Self-Actualized Individuals 1. Perceives reality fully and accurately; uncolored by needs or defenses 2. Accepts self and others 3. Spontaneous and natural behaviour 4. Problem-oriented, rather than self oriented; concerned with real world problems, not self 1 Quick Notes Psych 2B03 5. Quality of detachment and need for privacy 6. Independent of environment; non-conformist, resists enculturation 7. Freshness of appreciation 8. Periodic peak experiences (non-peakers = practical, effective; peakers = poetic, aesthetically oriented) 9. Identifies with humanity; mankind rather than narrow human groups 10. Accepts democratic views 11. Few deep relationships 12. Strong sense of personal ethics 13. Well developed sense of humor (not destructive) 14. Creative  Barriers to Self-Actualization 1. Inability to consistently meet lower needs 2. Lack/fear of self-knowledge 3. Social/cultural norms and expectations that are inconsistent with full development of individuals unique potential 4. Failure to make growth choices 5. Absence of proper environment a. Freedom of speech and action b. Freedom of inquiry c. Proper level of challenge or stimulation Criticism 1. Non-scientific methodology 2. Personal criteria for self-actualization; relate to qualities Maslow valued/saw in admired people 3. Ambiguous, unclear terminology 4. Does not explain cases when needs are not met, yet people become creative and productive 5. Little attention to development Self-Theory – Carl Rogers  Each person lives in and experiences slightly different versions of reality – defined by phenomenal field  Phenomenal Field – everything currently and potentially available to consciousness; private, changing  Actualizing Tendency – our only one tendency; innate need to fully realize all our potential; biological drives, attempts to maintain, enhance or actualize the individual; similar to libido (Freud)  Organismic Valuing Process (OVP) – leads toward fulfilling experiences; leads away from experiences that are inconsistent with actualizing tendency o Self must receive unconditional positive regard from others  Conditions of Worth – ways in which the individual must behave and feel in order to receive positive regard; arise when positive regard is conditional  Ideal Self – “ideal” person as others see it; arises by internalizing conditions of worth; takes over function of OVP in guiding behaviour choices; distorts course of self development  Incongruence – an inconsistency between the self concept and the individuals experiences; basis for all causes of maladjustment and pathology o Experience is subceived (detected before reaches consciousness); if inconsistent with conditions of worth – anxiety is felt o Experience may be distorted or denies at unconscious level to prevent/reduce anxiety o Individual only accurately experiences those that are consistent with conditions of worth o Self is denied of experiences that would be valuable to it and conductive to personal growth Client-Centered Therapy  Purpose – reduce the negative effects f the ideal self, reinstall OVP as
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