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Personality Psychology Midterm 1.docx

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Richard B Day

Chapter 1The Study of the Person Psychological triad personality psychology addresses how a person feels thinks and behavesPersonality an individuals characteristic patterns of thought emotion and behaviourTrait approach focus on the ways that people differ psychologically and how differences might be conceptualized and measured personality traitsBiological approach address biological mechanisms anatomy physiology geneticsPsychoanalytic approach concerned w unconscious mind and nature and resolution of internal mental conflict Phenomological approach focus on peoples conscious experience of the world o Can lead to humanistic psychology how conscious awareness contribute to human attributes o Or can lead to crosscultural psychology how experience of reality is different in culturesLearning and cognitive approach people change behaviours from rewards punishments experiences o Classic behaviourists overt behaviour BF Skinner o Social learning theory ways mental processes determine behaviours learnedperformedFunders first law Great strengths are usually great weaknesses and surprisingly often the opposite is true as wellChapter 2Clues to Personality The Basic Sources of Data Funders second law There are no perfect indicators of personality only clues and clues are always ambiguousFunders third law Something beats nothing 2 times out of 3 o Because something is uninformativemisleading should not be ignoredFour kinds of clues 1 Ask person directly S data selfjudgments Advantages DisadvantagesLarge amount of informationMaybe they wont tell youAccess to thoughts feelings and intentionsMaybe they cant tell you memory lossDefinitional truth selfviewsToo simple and too easyCausal force selfverification Simple and easy inexpensive2 Ask someone who knows I dataAdvantages DisadvantagesLarge amount of information observe people in theLimited behavioural info not w person all the time real worldCommon senseLack of access to private experience inner mental lifeDefinitional truthError human memory not perfectCausal force expectancy effectbehaviouralBias Seeing someone more positivelynegatively confirmation 3 Life outcomes L dataverifiable concrete facts that may hold psychological significance Advantages Disadvantages Objective and verifiableMultidetermination many causes hard to establish direct connectionsIntrinsic importance Psychological relevance4 Watch what the person does B databehaviour data Natural B data observations are limited and unsystematic eg diaryelectronically activated recorder Laboratory B data experimentsomething happenshow long until participant asks for helpPersonality tests MMPI Rorschach test Advantages DisadvantagesRange of contexts limited resourcesUncertain interpretation ambiguousAppearance of objectivity Behaviouroid when participants record what they think they would do in circumstanceso Not always same to what they would actually doFunders fourth law There are only 2 kinds of data o No data or terrible dataambiguous misleading incomplete and imprecise
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