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Midterm 2 Lecture Notes.docx

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Richard B Day

HUMANISTS Movement began in the 1930s, 1940s Picked up in 50s and 60s!! Harder to describe because it's kind of fuzzy and abstract Very optimistic view about human nature Importance of the meaning of life for every individual Need to construct a life story Why are we here, what should we be doing, who are we? Talk about self-actualization Importance of the individual to realize as much self-potential as possible Built-in potentials like the caterpillar becoming a butterfly Desire to help person achieve understanding, wholeness, meaning Largely idiographic approach to personality Focus on individual's unique perception of the world By and large as a humanist, only analyzing you as a person, not as a sample of humanity Believe strongly that it's a bad idea to analyze personality into parts Avoid reductionism Personality has no meaning as parts! One can only be understood in their wholeness Holistic view of the individual Rogers and maslow founded a society for humanist psychology "the primary study of psychology should be the experiencing person" Life as you see it, not the objective world of things as they actually are Each of us notices and pays attention to different things Focus on life as you experience Choice, creativity, and self-realization.. Are the concerns of the humanistic psychology Only personally and socially significant problems should be studied (not just stuff because we don't know it) Major concern of psychology is the dignity and enhancement of people Humanist movement in psychology Infancy in late 1930s, 1940s grew a lot in 1950s, 1960s peak of influence Stresses human potential and individuality The meaningfulness of life Generally idiographic view To understand the individual person Want to be asking questions with personal or social relevance A Maslow & Carl Rogers Founders of humanism A Maslow Had same feelings about his mother as Jung domineering and overbearing Spent a lot of time reading Was a so-so student (unlike Freud who was at the top of his class) 1926… finally goes to college! City College of New York (tuition for residents of the city is free) Was interested in philosophy Transferred to University of Winston (?) Again interested in philosophy Met some philosophers Became an amrite of behaviourism (we can change the way people behaviour) Harry Harold was a brand new PhD helped him Maslow Sexual and dominance hierarchies in monkeys Did masters and phd as well Wanted to become a psychologist Felt that there was not going to be many jobs Especially because he was Jewish Headed off to medical school Had a terrible time Got a research scholarship somewhere else (someone who Thorndex studied instrumental psychology) Studied sexual behaviour and hierarchy in humans Interviewed women Attractive young women yay! B) men would lie to him Published the very first paper about human sexuality ever Brooklyn college psychology position 14 years New york was a hot bed of european people who had fled europe Maslow ended up getting to know a lot of these amazing famous people who influenced him Influenced by holes, cultural anthropologists Came to believe that there was very little in the way of human nature So many of the black foot tribe were well adjusted But when they were maladjusted, they behaved in the same way as maladjusted natives Everyone has a the same behaviour! No reinforcement Wrote an abnormal psychology text with a chapter on positive psychology Brandies university No antisemintism here Became chair thanks to einstein Spent ten years here His major work was done and published here Motivation and Personality (his most influential book) Became very very famous Psychedelic drugs could produce a state of mind which was condusive to intense personal growth and development Became disillusioned Worked a stanford YupePsyche and Management Maslow on Management Tremendous impact on Japan, America on business practices as much as psychology "Instinctoid" Motivation What is it that people want? Why is it that we do what we do? Like Freud and Jung, Maslow believed that human nature was built in, and we all had same motives He called these not instincts, but instinctoids (something like an instinct but not the same) Not like animal instincts! Animal instincts are uncontrollable No way to stop it, happens all by itself Humans can repress, ignore, amplify our motivations Can be and are modified by learning experiences We have a hierarchy of needs Physiological needs at the body (water, food, sex) Safety needs (safety, predictability, shelter, psychological aspect: certainty in our lives so things are routinized) Love and belongingness needs (similar to Jung's idea of the persona: need to be accepted by, and membership in human groups: identification with family, members of school, town, country… strong need for love: we need to be loved and valued by others, but we also need to give love!) Esteem needs (recognition, status prestige placed on us by others. We want respect. We also need self-esteem. We need a sense of mastery and control… if you don't love yourself, who will?) At the top is something not part of the triangle: "self actualization" Note that needs at the bottom are more biological (ex. Physiological, air water food) as we move up, we get less and less physiological and more psychological About making us feel satisfied Also hierarchy because of when the appeared in revolution Every animal species has physiological needs But as we move up, we're moving up from evolutionarily ancient, to evolutionarily recent Stuff at the top may be purely human Also hierarchy depending on when they show up in individual's own development Early appearance to later appearance Each need only appears after the one below it is at least PARTIALLY satisfied (ex 20~30%) Simultaneously, we can have a number of different needs ready to be satisfied Behaviours are "overdetermined" Any given behaviour we choose is typically motivated by some or all of these needs Ex. Going to eat lunch: food, and friendship We are lucky because we really never experience lack of satisfaction physiologically Self-actualization doesn't emerge in everybody Only a very small fraction of Jung's description of people ever develop self-actualization Maslow says exactly the same thing Maslow sees self-actualization as an on-going process Continually realizing all of one's inner potential We seldom realize it all Having satisfied the lower level needs, develop values Unfold into what we can be Two needs that don't fit anywhere that are present at birth Cognitive need: the need to learn, explore People vary in their cognitive need Aesthetic needs: need for beauty and symmetry and artistic creativity, can be extremely strong in some people and weak in others Some people are literally physically ill in the presence of ugliness! Thus varies in strength considerably Exceptions to hierarchy Some individuals whose order for needs is reversed Esteem comes before love and belongingness for some people (after safety is esteem not love and belongingness)… rare exception! Long satisfied need may be undervalued (if you have grown up feeling that a certain need, ex. Physiological need…) Usually if your main need is esteem, and then suddenly your physiological need isn't satisfied anymore (ex. War), our hierarchy comes down! But if basic need was always met and suddenly satisfaction is gone, we can still be motivated by esteem and love and belonging etc. because we undervalue the lower level needs because we undervalue them Creativity may overwhelm all other drives (give up anything for the chance to write or paint, etc.) Satisfaction of constant lack: higher drives never appear (if you were raised in a situation where your lower level needs were never met, and suddenly and finally your needs are met, you may be satisfied with just those needs and none of the higher ones!) Again these are exceptions, and relatively rare States of mind: Deficiency motives, needs, de-motives We aren't whole until these needs are met completely There is an emptiness, a gap in our lives Driven, seek out satisfaction for these needs Focused Deficiency perception (decognition is focused: we selectively pick out those stimuli which seem relevant to our current needs; largely ignore everything else) Ex. Boy in train without food: only notice food stimuli! Ex. Billboards with food pictures, etc. Active We are seeking out things which are seeking our needs Maslow's Eight-Fold Way Habits we can cultivate in ourselves that are typical of individuals who are self-actualized Self-awareness, self-development, growth choices, trusting judgment, peak experiences… HONESTY More than the typical understanding of the word Recognize that we have responsibility for the decisions we make in our lives Very easy for us to say something like "I had to do this" "somebody made me do this" Unless someone points a gun at our head, we make all our choices with 100% free will We may not like our choices and give in to pressures, but it IS OUR CHOICE Recognize that we have the responsibility to make the choices we do in life In very few cases are we forced to make a choice CONCENTRATION Full absorption and concentration at whatever we are doing at the moment Living fully in the moment and fully engaging ourselves Especially difficult in our generation because we are "multitaskers" which doesn't really exist An idea from Buddhism NO EGO DEFENSES Maslow agreed with many other theorists that we have very strong defenses against our selves… we avoid learning things about ourselves because it might be detrimental Eliminate defenses against knowing things about ourselves Like Jung's Shadow Maslow's Self-Actualizers About 50 names that Maslow studied to look for some characteristics of self-actualized individuals… +his acquitances Perceives reality fully, accurately: see the world as it is Accepting and tolerant of self and others (don't complain water is wet… rocks are hard etc.) Yet we're terribly critical of people We need to accept things as they are They have a high tolerance for people's quirks Accept them for who and what they are A lot of the people on that list have devoted their lives to helping and working with others Identifies with humanity Beyond neighbours and friends to everyone in the human race All people are worthy of respect and affection Spontaneous and natural The ultimate goal is to behave purely expressively: unselfconscious way about them Freshness of appreciation Able to repeatedly enjoy the same things over and over again without being jaded Childlike.. We get dulled as we get older: "been there, done that" See the value of something the first time, second time, tenth time Detached, needs privacy Needs time to his or herself Need time to think etc Comfortable being alone Detached from necessity of interpersonal relationships Don’t need the social interactions to feel validated Few deep relationships Depth of the relationships they do have are much greater than other people Few of us have the wherewithal to have the kind of relationship with many people Do have long and meaningful relationships… but few of them which are more intense Independent of environment Self-sufficient Have a sense of who they are and what they want Very self-directed Resist following blindly what others are doing They trust their own judgment Resist enculturation Don’t go along with things because that's what their culture wants There are rebels who resist hierarchy and enforced culture Not paying attention to what decisions other people are making Periodic peak experiences Not everyone needs these Some people need more of these. Artists etc. Not a necessicity for being self-actualized An intense, brief period of becognition Accepts democratic values Each of us has rights to make decisions about our lives Strong sense of personal ethics Adhere to their sense of ethics more than other people might Well-developed sense of humour Good-natured people, playful Can see the fun in things Not destructive Not sarcastic Never use humour as a weapon Is creative Not necessarily talking about high cultural creativity (ex painting) Simple things! New ways of arranging dishes on the table etc. Automatically tapping into creative potential once you have brought together all your complexes and gain access to the power and energy of creativity in the unconscious Problem- rather than self-oriented Focus on things they can do to make life better for other people All those people in that list became well known because of things they did for others Down-sides to being self-actualized: They are not perfect They are simply who they are That may not be who you or I might like or want to be like In becoming more of yourself, relationships may end, you may become distance from other people You are not trying to please other people anymore The goal for humanists is not for you to be more liked by others but for you to become more of who you are Very individualist Humanists have a very positive view of human nature Everyone is meant and destined to be a good person, ultimately contributing something good as a result of their existence 1% reach the state the rest don't Barriers: Inability to meet lower needs Lack/fear of self-knowledge We avoid learning about ourselves Social/cultural norms Expectations of society based on what you are on your gender, etc. Maybe even communism: restrictions on careers, where to live Failure to make growth choices We let opportunities pass us by because they're frightening, anxiety-producing We often make the safer, easier choice Absence of proper environment: Freedom of speech and action Freedom or inquiry Proper level of challenge or stimulation Too much: spend all time working to meet needs Too little: you don't need to work for anything so you never get to grow Criticisms of theory Nonscientific methodology Constructs, ideas talked about: not easily measurable or defined Can't be accessed rigorously in science Creativity when needs not met?? Needs may not be meet but they seem self-actualized Little attention to development What sorts of things should happen in order for development to proceed? Hard to make this a practical kind of theory that can be applied to counselling, etc. (this is true-> hasn't made a great impact on counselling, but rather in business management) Maslow most influential of the humanist First to publish about this theory Popularized the theory of self-actualization *jung's work hadn't yet been translated from the original German Also the grandfather of positive personality Carl Rogers' Self Theory Six years older than Maslow but came into prominence later Born in 1902 in Chicago Father a professional engineer Five children Very tight knit family Adhered to conservative Protestant faith Parents were very concerned that children were sheltered from evils of outside world Father got heavily involved in farming Was concerned with running it based in science Rogers became interested in science as well A lot of statistics! Most of modern statistics comes from agricultural work Discouraged from having friends outside the family Was an excellent student Had few friends, was very lonely, did a lot of reading Went to university of agriculture determined to become a farmer Felt like he was called to the ministry Changed his major to history which he felt was a better preparation One of twelve delegates to world conference of Christian youth Spent 6 months in the far east (mostly China) Suddenly spent months surrounded by people from different cultures etc His parents had taught him that people who believed differently were evil But Rogers met many people that he liked very much who were not Protestant Finished history degree Entered a liberal theological seminary in New York After a couple of years felt that the religious approach to helping people wasn't the one that was most comfortable for him Moved to Columbia college and completed a master's and Phd in clinical and counselling psychology Worked with troubled youth for 9 years Was trained in psychodynamic approach Decided he didn't really agree with it He felt that many individuals actually knew what was going on in their minds (unlike psychodynamic theory in which everything is unconscious) Wanted to become more of a facilitator than a director In 1940 moved west to ohio state Worked in clinical psychology and formulated his ideas there Counselling and psychotherapy: newer concepts in practice Talks more about methodolgy Needed a theory to explain why his approaches were effective 1945 moved to uni of chicago He moved back to uni of wisconsin He moved to the west coast Met Maslow Left to form the center for the studies of the person Spent much time until death travelling the world Died at 85 Considered to be one of the most influential people in clinical psychology There is lots of overlap between maslow and rogers although they use different terminology Many conceptual echos from psychoanalytic theory Like all humanists, focuses on the individuality of people The focus of psychology should be the experiencing person Each of us lives in a different world than the person next to us Noticing and focusing and interpreting differently… "Phenomenal Field" that set of sensations, feelings, etc. which are easily brought up to consciousness "everything currently available to consciousness" Rogers believes in the power and importance of self-actualization (like maslow) Actualizing tendency: maslow believes very few are actually motivated by this because fundamental needs are not met yet Rogers: there is only one motive to all human behavior: actualizing tendency (kind of like freud) For us to grow and develop, from birth to death, trying to become all that we have the power and ability to be Hunger, thirst etc is all in service of self-actualizing Self-actualizing is not necessarily a happy thing… not always complete positivity, but rising above all that The sole reason for existence: being what we can be Organismic valuing process: In Freud's model we have instincts like the sexual one Rogers: we have built in each of us an instinctive guide as to what path to take A whole-organismic gut feeling Leads us to feel as though we should approach opportunities for actualizing Reject situations inconsistence with actualizing "Self": at birth we don't have a self We don't have as infants the disguishment between "me" and "other" Self: slow developing, part of the phenomenal field Always develops But what direction does this development take? Away or towards full development? Unconditional positive regard: self as it is developing needs love, acceptance, approval, without conditions! We must be unconditionally accepted If this is occuring, we can just follow the organismic valuing process This often does not occur Many times we get conditional positive regard instead We must be a certain kind of person and behave in certain ways to be accepted "conditions of worth" Different extents to which the people in our lives impose, not always knowingly, conditions of value These conditions are EXTERNAL Once we experience them long enough, we internalize them and take them into our own psyche (kind of like the formation of the superego) They form part of the "ideal self" This is misleading… not self self ideal… other people's self idea The ideal self is a bad thing… definitely maladaptive Leads us to do things that are inconsistent with the organismic valuing process Instead of judging what we do in terms of the OVP, we hold ourselves to external (and now internal) standards of conduct We will stop following the path that is right for us We will be guiding our behavioural choices based on the conditional judgements internalized When this happens we suffer from psychological symptoms It's being what other people want you to be: depression, anxiety Why don't we consciously understand what's going on? Incongruence: We will have experiences that are inconsistence with the ideal self Behaviours, thoughts that friends family disapprove Positive regard is withdrawn Incongruent feelings and thoughts being repressed into the unconscious We are burying parts of the truth about us Keeping it out of the phenomenal field Incongruence is a nasty feeling *there are ways to raise children and punish them for wrongdoing without withdrawing positive regard Evaluate the BEHAVIOUR not the PERSON Hate the SIN not the SINNER Leave it to Beaver series from the 1950s 1960s is a great example of great punishment Explain why the behavior that the unruly son engaged in was bad Unconditional positive regard all the time "I love you always but I'd rather you not do this because______" Conditions for therapeutic change (what Rogers actually did) Rogers is very democratic You don’t need to be a trained counsellor to help someone with their problems As long as you meet some conditions: Never use the word patient Never a metal illness You are helping someone with a service Client and therapist must be in each other's phenomenal field You both have to pay attention to your relationship Listen to each other Therapist must try to empathically understand the client Understanding is purely cognitive intellectual exercise Empathetically understanding: try to feel as the client feels What is the world like for the client? Especially emotionally "and how did that make you feel?" "what is your experience of this situation?" ****Therapist must provide unconditional positive regard Respect and value client regardless of what they say or do You might have negative attitude towards certain behaviours but not to the person him/herself It is very difficult Hard not to be evaluative Client must be aware of empathy and positive regard They have to know that the positive regard will never be withdrawn A safe environment in which the individual can explore their feelings and integrate them into their sense of who they are Carl Rogers's Self Theory Conditions for Therapeutic Change Client-centered, non-directed therapy Absolutely any relationship can be therapeutic as long as it meets those 4 criteria Paying attention to each other "phenomenal field" Therapist must try to empathically understand client (vs. just "understanding"… EMPATHY Therapist must provide unconditional positive regard Client must be aware of empathy and positive regard It might seem like the therapist is doing very little in one of these sessions Therapist just provides an environment in which the client can make use of the tools he/she already has for self- development But actually very difficult Because there is a tendency of people, even as therapists, to help by offering guidance and information "my life sucks" INSTEAD of saying "no it doesn’t" SAY "so what I hear you saying is that you think your life sucks" None of those things one might want to do as a caring human being Because the client's self regard should be independent of the therapist's positive evaluation We want the client's own internal evaluation of themselves to change Very difficult to put yourself in the same emotional state as a client who is in a negative emotional state Can be a real downer for the therapist And paying very close attention to what the individual is saying A lot of work and effort! It sounds like not much because a therapist is doing relatively little! Very demanding on the therapist Sit back and just listen, and just reflect back on what they think they understand to the client to make sure they've got it right This can go one for months In many other types of therapy, the therapist is a teacher They explain what they think is going on to the patient In rogerian method the client decides for his/herself the understanding of the situation It is up to the client when the therapy terminates In most other forms of therapy the therapist has some kind of input as to when it ends "I've accomplished what I want to accomplish, I won't be coming back next week" Has dominated therapy and counselling Rogers believed that everyone could be helped by this kind of approach Even schizophrenics!! Therapeutic changes Expresses feelings more freely Want the client to open up eventually Because of the unconditional positive regard Client should be able to describe feelings more accurately We often misinterpret our own feelings to put ourselves in a more positive light We have inner defenses We don't understand ourselves Unconditional positive regard helps them describe their feelings more accurately Detects incongruence between self concept and experiences Peop
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