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Psych 2B03 – Midterm 1 Textbook Notes.docx

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Richard B Day

Psych2B03PersonalityChapter131012NotesChapter1TheStudyofthePersonPsychology is about the precise manipulation of independent variables for the furtherance of compelling theoretical accounts of wellspecified phenomenapersonality psychology addresses how people feel think and behave the three parts of the psychological triadInconsistencies between feelings thoughts and behaviors are common enough to make us suspect that the mind is not a simple placeThe person you know best is not necessarily easyPersonality psychology is not the same as clinical psychology they both try to understand whole personspersonality psychology draws heavily from social cognitive developmental clinical and biological psychologyPersonality refers to an individuals characteristic patterns of thought emotion and behavior together with the psychological mechanismshidden or not behind those patternsPieces of the puzzle from other subfields of psychologytheir own research to come up with an integrated view of whole functioning individuals in their daily environmentsTrait Approachthe way people differ psychologically and how these differences can be conceptualized and measured personality traitsBiological approachbiological mechanisms like anatomy physiology genetics evolution and their relevance to personalityPsychoanalytic Approachthe unconscious mind and internal mental conflict Other psychologists focus on peoples conscious experience of the world their phenomenology so follow a phenomenological approachoHumanistic psychologyconscious awareness can produce uniquely human attributes as existential anxiety creativity and free will and tries to understanding the meaning and basis of happinessoThe degree to which psychology and the experience of reality may be different across different cultures led to crosscultural personality researchLearning Approachconcentration on how people change their behavior as a result of rewards punishments and other experiences in life called learning Behaviourism led to social learning theory which takes the mental processes of observation and selfevaluation that determine which behaviors are learned and how they are performed SLT evolved into focusing on cognitive processes applying insight and methods derived from perception memory and thought Taken together behaviorism social learning theory and cognitive personality psychology comprise the learning and cognitive processes approaches to personalityEach personality theorist believed that his theory accounted for all explanations about human nature and that any other theory was wrongThey complement rather than compete with each other because each addresses a different set of questions about human psychologyEach approach to personality psychology can be useful for handling its own key concernsOne big theory will do everything but not explain it all well in every aspect If it explains certain things very well it might not explain everything all together wellEach theory address its questions and answers them well in their own aspectEverybodys personality comes as a package deal Personality is coherent and each part stems from and depends on the othersThe advantages and disadvantages of each approach are inseparable Funders first law Great strengths are usually great weaknesses and surprisingly often the opposite is true as wellSimilarly each basic approach to personality has made a more or less deliberate decision to ignore some aspects of psychology This is a heavy cost to pay but so far it seems necessary in order for each approach to make progress in its chosen areaChapter2CluestoPersonalityTolookatanindividualspersonalityyoucando4thingsoAskthepersondirectionalforhowtheyarelikethisiswhatpersonalitypsychologistsdooYoucanfindoutwhatotherpeoplewhoknowherwellthinkoYoucancheckhowthatpersonisdoinginlifeoYoucanobservewhattheydoandtrytomeasuretheirbehaviorasdirectlyandobjectivelyaspossibleyou need to look at personality in all of these ways because personality is
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