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Psych 2B03 – Textbook Notes - Final Exam .docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 2B03
Professor
Richard B Day
Semester
Fall

Description
Psych2B03PersonalityChapter47919NotesChapter4PersonalityTraitsSituationsandBehaviorPsychologistswhofollowthetraitapproachusecommonsenseandordinarywordsandtheirscientificmeasurementsofindividualdifferencesonfamiliarconceptslikesociabilityreliabilitydominancenervousnessandcheerfulnessPersonalitypsychisbasedonempiricalresearchthatusesmostlycorrelationaldesignsTheultimatecriteriaforanymeasurementofapersonalitytraitiswhetheritcanbeusedtopredictbehaviorScorehighondominanceandyoucanpredictthatwillactinadominantmannerThecorrelationbetweenthedominancescoreandsomeseparateindicationofthepersonsdominantbehaviorItfocusesonindividualdifferencesThetraitapproachseekstomeasurethedegreetowhichapersonmightbemoreorlessofatraitthansomeoneelseMadeonordinalnotratioscalesItisimportanttounderstandandassesshowpeopledifferTheMeasurementofIndividualDifferencesPsychologicalpropertiesandprocessesareuniversaloAllpeoplehavebiologicallybasedneedsforfoodandwateroOtherpropertiesofpeopledifferinwaysthatallowindividualstobegroupedHappypeopledifferfromsadpeopleoEachindividualisuniqueandcannotbemeaningfullycomparedwithanyoneelseOnesgeneticspastexperienceandviewoftheworldisdifferentfromeveryonendThetraitapproachisatthe2pointwhereitismeaningfulandusefultoassessbroadcategoriesofindividualdifferencesPeoplearetheirtraitsTheindividualdifferencesarethebuildingblocksforwhichpersonalityisconstructedaccordingtotraittheoristsButthisbringsaproblemPeopleareInconsistentYoucanjudgeormeasurethedegreetowhichsomeoneisatraitbuttherearemanyexceptionsYoucanbeshywithstrangersbutopenwithfamilyThereisinconsistencyseenallthetimePersonalitytraitsarenottheonlyfactorsthatcontrolanindividualsbehaviorsituationsalsomatterSomesituationsbringoutthetraitsmoreorlesstoadegreeSituationsvaryaccordingtothepeoplepresentandtheimplicitrulesthatapplySomethoughtthatpersonalitydoesnotmattermuchPeoplehavefewconsistentattributestotheirpersonalityandchangewhotheyareformmomenttomomentdependingontheimmediatesituationIndividualdifferencesarenotimportantandhowyouactdependsonthesituationsyouhappenatbeinatthemomentYoungpeopletookthisasrightolderpeoplesaiditwascompletelywrongItiswrongThestabilityofthedifferencesbetweenpeopleincreaseswithageOlderpeoplearemoreconsistentthanyoungerones5070yearoldsarethemoststableofallStudentsstilldependontheirparentsnotsettledintolifesotheychangemoreoftenOlderpeoplehavealifesetandareinthatstagePeopledifferfromeachotherinthedegreetowhichtheyhavedevelopedaconsistentpersonalityforthemselvesTheconsistencyofpersonalityisassociatedwithmaturityandgeneralmentalhealthMoreconsistentpeoplearelessneuroticmorecontrolledmorematureandmorepositiveintheirrelationswithothersThePersonSituationDebateSincebehaviorissoinconsistentmaybepersonalitytraitsdonotexistSomepsychologistshavearguedforthepersonsituationdebateWhichismoreimportantfordeterminingwhatpeopledoThepersonorthesituationMischelarguedthatbehaviorisinconsistentfromonesituationtothenextsonoindividualdifferencescouldbecharacterizedaccuratelyintermsofbroadpersonalitytraitsOthersdisagreedthusthepersonsituationdebate3issuesoDoespersonalityofanindividualtranscendtheimmediatesituationandgiveaconsistentguidetoheractionsOrdoesthepersonaldependsolelyonthesituationsheisinatthetimeoAretheordinaryintuitionsaboutpeoplefundamentallyflawedorbasicallycorrectoWhyargueabouttheconsistencyofpersonalitywhenthebasicempiricalquestionsweresettledlongagoThepersonsituationdebateisimportantbcitisaimedattheveryfoundationsofthetraitapproachThesituationistargumenthas3partsoThereisanupperlimittohowwellonecanpredictwhatapersonwilldobasedonanymeasurementofthatpersonspersonalityAlowupperlimitoThussituationsaremoreimportantthanpersonalitytraitsindeterminingbehaviororiginofsituationismoEverydayintuitionsaboutpeopleareflawedTraitsusedtodescribepeoplearenotdescriptivepeopletendtoseeothersasbeingmoreconsistentacrosssituationsthantheyreallyarePeoplewhobelievepersonalityisimportantcommitthefundamentalattributionerrorPredictabilityThesituationistargumentThedefinitivetestoftheusefulnessofapersonalitytraitiswhetheritcanbeusedtopredictbehaviorIfyouknowtheirscoreonatraityoushouldbeabletopredictwhattheywilldointhefutureSituationiststhinkthepredictivecapacityisverylimitedNotraitthatyoucanusetopredictsomeonesbehaviorwithenoughaccuracytobeusefulMishellookedatrelationshipsbetweenoSdataandBdataoIdataandBdataoBdataandsomeotherBdataThefirsttwolookattheabilityofpersonalitytraitjudgmentstopredictbehaviorThethirdlooksattheconsistencyofbehavioracrosssituationsThisdatawasgatheredinlabsettingsNotoftenassessinmoreorlessnaturalsituationsAstheyaredifficultandexpensivestudiestodoThecriticalquestionishowwellapersonsbehaviorinonesituationcanbepredictedeitherfrom1hisbehaviorinanothersituationor2fromhispersonalitytraitscoresPredictabilityandconsistencyaremeasuredbythecorrelationcoefficientApersonalityscoreandabehavioralmeasurementPositivecorrelationoneincreasesotherincreasesNegativecorrelationonevariableincreasesotherdecreasesBothimplythatonevariablecanbepredictedfromtheknowledgeoftheotherCorrelationby0thenvariablesareunrelatedtoeachotherMishelarguedthatbehaviorinonesituationandinanotherdoesnotexceed03Nisbettsaidwasnotabove04SmallcorrelationsmeanspersonalitytraitsarenotimportantTheythoughtthatpersonalitydidnotexistSituationistswererightand04istheupperlimitforthepredictabilityofagivenbehaviorfrompersonalityvariablesorbehaviorinothersituationsThisupperlimitislowTheResponse
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