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Psych 2C03 - textbook summary for midterm 2.docx

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Jennifer Ostovich

Psych 2C03 Textbook Summary – midterm 2 Ch9 – Altruism: a motive to increase another’s welfare without conscious regard for one’s self-interests What motivates Altruism? 1. Social Exchange - Cost-benefit - Human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one’s rewards and minimize one’s cost 1) Rewards - Rewards that motivate helping maybe external or internal; but internal rewards can have a larger impact on happiness than even a powerful external reward like money - Egoism: a motive to increase one’s own welfare; it is opposite of altruism 2) Internal rewards - Guilt and another’s distress => more likely to help to relieve it Ex) when you have told the like to experimenter, you are more likely to spent longer time helping him to reduce your guilt Ex2) guilt-laden woman who think they had broken other’s camera, is more likely to help candy loosing woman to relieve guilt not to redeem themselves Do always negative mood such as guilt, distress lead to helping? - The exception is Depression: people undergo a period of intense self-preoccupation that makes it difficult to be giving; only 25% of those whose attention had been self-focused helped Are happy people unhelpful? - A positive mood of relief can dramatically boost helping; 65% of people whose fear had just turned to relief willingly agreed 2. Social norm - we have not for self-interest, but simply because something tell us we ought to 1) The reciprocity norm - an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them - helps define social-capital - people are more willing to pledge to an experimental confederate’s charity if the confederate had done a small favor for them earlier, especially when their reciprocation was made known to the confederate 2) The social-responsibility norm - an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them without regard to future exchanges; the children the severely impoverished and disabled….. - it is apply to those whose need appears not to be due to their own negligence, but due to circumstance, like natural disaster Psych 2C03 Textbook Summary – midterm 2 - if we attribute the need to an uncontrollable predicament, we help - sympathy motivated helping 3. Evolutionary psychology – the essence of life is gene survival 1) Kin protection - Kin selection: the idea that evolution has selected altruism toward one’s close relative to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes; we would sacrifice ourselves for three brothers or for nine cousins but not for one brother - The young before the old, family members before friends, neighbors before strangers are more likely to get helped 2) Reciprocation - Reciprocity works best in small, isolated groups, groups in which one will often see the people for whom one does favors - Group of altruistic survive better than groups of non-altruists Is there ultimate goal always some form of self-benefit, such as relief from distress or avoidance of guilt? - Empathy produces helping even toward members of rival groups - With their empathy aroused, people will help even when they believe no one will know about their helping - People will sometimes persist in wanting to help a suffering person even when they believe their distressed mood has been temporarily frozen by a mood fixing drugs When will we help? - The bigger and more densely populated the city, the less likely people were to help - Also, people in economically advanced countries tended to offer less help to strangers, and those in cultures marked by amiable and agreeable were more helpful - We are more likely to offer help when someone else does - Time pressure: either they are in hurry or on the way to an important appointment, they usually do not stop to help. Cost of time is huge - Similarity: we are more empathic and helpful toward those similar to us - No face is more familiar than one’s own; we are more trusting and generous when the other person’s picture face had some features of our own morphed into it. Also, even just sharing a birthday, a first name, or a fingerprint pattern leads people to respond more to a request for help Who helps? Personality traits - High in emotionality, empathy, and self-efficacy, self-monitoring people are especially helpful - BUT, it seems help is for influenced by the situation than by measurable personality traits. - Gender differneces: men more often help in dangeru situation but in safer situations, women are Psych 2C03 Textbook Summary – midterm 2 slightly more likely to help. Also they are as likely as men to risk death as holocaust rescuers, to donate a kidney, and to volunteer with aid agencies. THUS, the gender difference interacts with the situation How can we increase helping? 1) Having conversation or eye-contact increases willingness to help because they are sort of personalized 2) The circumstances that promote self-awareness – name tags, being watched and evaluated, undistracted quite – should increase helping too 3) Enable guilt and concern for self-image 4) Teaching moral inclusion - Moral exclusion: the perception of certain individuals or groups as outside the boundary within which one applies moral values and rules of fairness 5) Modeling altruism - By watching pro-social TV program, or telling a altruistic story can increase altruistic behavior 6) Model attributing help behavior to altruism - Over-justification effect: the result of bribing people to do what they already like doing; externally controlled - People are more likely to help someone without payment or implied social pressure. - Compliance vs. compassion => 25% vs 60% - Induce a tentative positive commitment; reply with ‘NO’if you don’t’anticipate donating - 7) Learning about altruism Ch10: Aggression: hurting others What is aggression? - Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone - Hostile aggression: aggression driven by anger and performed as an end in itself; murders - Instrumental aggression: aggression that is a means to some other end; war, terrorism 1) Aggression as a biological phenomenon - Instinct theory by Freud/Lorenz: aggression is instinctual, if not discharged, it builds up until it explodes or until an appropriate stimulus ‘release’it => but fail to account for generalization - From evolutionary perspective, aggressive behavior is a strategy for gaining resources, defending against attack, intimidating or eliminating male rivals for females, and deterring mates from sexual infidelity - Neural influence – giving shock on region ‘amygdala’ elicits aggressive behavior, prefrontal cortex region is less active than normal in murderers => abnormal brains cause abnormal aggressive behavior Psych 2C03 Textbook Summary – midterm 2 - Genetic influence: aggressiveness is passed on to next generation but not only nature, but nurture interacts together. - Alcohol: alcohol enhances aggressiveness by reducing people’s self-awareness, and by reducing their ability to consider consequences, and by people’s mentally associating alcohol with aggression - Testosterone: injecting a man with testosterone won’t automatically make him aggressive, yet men with low testosterone are somewhat less likely to react aggressively when provoked - Low serotonin: low serotonin is often found among violence-prone children and adults - All of these flows both way 2) Aggression as response to frustration - Frustration-aggression theory: frustration triggers a readiness to aggress - Frustration: anything blocking of goal-directed behavior - Displacement: the redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration - Revised Frustration-aggression: sometimes frustration increased aggressiveness, sometimes not; anger arises when someone who frustrates us could have chosen to act otherwise - Does deprivation cause frustration? Frustration arises from the gap between expectations and attainments - The relative deprivation: the perception that one is less well off than others to whom one compares oneself 3) Aggression as learned social behavior (in this case, aggression is instrumental, achieving certain rewards) - We acquire aggression by watching others act and noting the consequences - Where and when fathers are absent, the violence risk increases - Violent subculture also influences on aggression What are some influences on aggression? - Heat (psychological pain), physical pain, media(pornography), arousal, intent to harm - Distorted perceptions of sexual reality: due to pornography of woman resist to men at the beginning, become aroused and enjoyed sex, men’s perceptions of sexual reality is distorted; they showed less sympathy and said victim’s injuries as less severe 1) Aggression against women (due to pornography) - Correlational studies: sexually explicit magazines and rape rate => the area that sold the most magazine, the most raped 2) Media influences - Catharsis: emotional release, aggressive drive is reduced when one releases aggressive energy by acting or fantasizing aggression Psych 2C03 Textbook Summary – midterm 2 rd - The more violent the content of the child’s viewing, the more aggressive the child; 3 variable might can be family size (big), and lower intelligence - Correlational studies: violence viewing and violent behavior is correlated but, third variable might exist, => construct experiment! - TV viewing experiment (like bubudoll): confirmed that viewing violence amplifies aggression - When the realistic violence that goes unpunished and that shows no pain or harm or people with aggressive tendencies => even increase violence! -
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