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PSYCH 2H03 (13)


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McMaster University
Judith Shedden

1 Psych 2H03 - Winter 2013 – Example Exam Questions These are example questions (answers on last page). They are provided to give you an idea for the TYPE of questions on the exams. There will be a mix of easier and harder questions - harder ones are designed to test whether you understand the issues involved, not just disconnected facts about things. Obviously, these are NOT the only things that will be tested on the exam; conversely, the fact that there is a practice question about some topic does NOT mean it won't be on the exam as well. These questions were used last year and may not represent this year’s textbook; completely new questions will be written for this year’s exams. The chapters/lectures that are covered on each exam are listed elsewhere. 1. The difficulty associated with scanning through a sentence and verbally indicating whether each word is a noun or not is generally taken as evidence for: a. task-specific resources b. task-general resources c. the psychological refractory period (PRP) d. both A and B 2. An automatized skill is one that is: a. fast, dependent on intention b. deliberate, dependent on awareness c. independent of awareness, reflexive d. independent of intention, innate 3. A major limitation of the feature theory of object recognition is that: a. it requires that we have knowledge of a vast array of features in order to account for all variations of objects b. it ignores spatial relations between components c. it does not allow for differentiation between similar looking objects (ie: between a dog and a wolf) d. all of the above 4. What determines the current level of activation of a detector in a feature net? a. response threshold for activation b. recency of activation c. frequency of activation d. both b and c 2 5. According to the textbook, cognitive psychology is primarily concerned with the study of: a. the acquisition, retention, and use of knowledge b. conscious mental events such as our feelings, thoughts, and perceptions c. the id, ego, and superego d. observable human behaviour 6. In an experiment using the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) paradigm, two stimuli are presented at the same time. Making the Task 1 stimulus harder to see will most likely _______ the reaction time for Task 2, and making the Task 2 stimulus harder to see will most likely _______ the reaction time for Task 2. a. increase, increase b. increase, not affect c. not affect, increase d. not affect, not affect 7. Which is NOT a potential problem with Biederman's structural (geon) theory of object recognition? a. Object representations are based on a small and limited set of component parts. b. Two different objects may have the same structural description. c. Some objects are difficult to decompose into usable parts. d. It is difficult to match an object's description with what is stored in memory. 8. In terms of TASK-SPECIFIC resources, which of the following dual task situations should theoretically show the LEAST resource conflict? a. reading for comprehension while taking dictation b. giving directions to someone over the phone while playing a video game c. writing a term paper while singing along to the radio d. driving a car while talking on a cell phone 9. Suppose you are shown a long list consisting partly of pictures of objects, and partly of the names of objects. After learning the list, you are given three types of tests: free recall; cued recall to the first three letters of a word, and an implicit stem-completion test. For which tests would you expect the pictures to lead to better performance than words? a) None b) All c) Free recall only d) Free recall and the implicit stem completion 3 10. Which of the following can be taken as proof that amnesic patients maintain their ability to form and maintain implicit memories? a)  Amnesic  patients  don’t  usually  forget  their  own  names b) Amnesic patients prefer music they have heard before c) Amnesic patients continue to act in a socially appropriate manner (e.g.. shake hands  with  someone  they’re  meeting) d) Amnesic patients can remember skills they learned before they obtained brain damage 11. Memory for how to do something is called ________ memory, and is related to _______ memory; while memory for an event is called _______ memory, and is related to ________ memory. a) declarative, implicit; procedural, explicit b) declarative, explicit; procedural, implicit c) procedural, implicit; declarative, explicit d) procedural, explicit; declarative, implicit 12. Which of the following is the best explanation of the spacing effect (i.e. memory is improved when study is spaced over several sessions)? a) It is better to repeatedly encode a word in the same context b) Repeating words after many intervening items is likely to lead to encoding the words in varying contexts c) Words presented at the beginning and end of a list are likely to be recalled better than words presented in the middle of the list d) Repeating words many times is likely to lead to better memory than repeating a word just once 13. Baddeley and Hitch (1977) asked members of a rugby team to recall the names of teams they had played against over the course of a rugby season. With the retention interval held constant, results indicated that their performance was influenced by the number of games that intervened between the to-be-recalled game and the attempt to remember. Which of the following do these results BEST support? a) An interference account of forgetting b) A decay explanation of forgetting c) Source confusion d) All of the above 14. Schemata are helpful in that they a) Make it easier to understand and remember new information b) Generate expectations about the way things typically work, which guides processing c) Make it easier to remember unusual information d) All of the above 4 15. Even though Pedro was too young to remember his baby brother being born he has been told the story so often that he believes he can remember the event. This memory is an example of a) Overwriting b) Childhood amnesia c) Acceptance of misinformation d) Source confusion 16. Loftus argues that recovered memories are not accurate representations of the remembered events, because a) Memories of actual events are often inaccurate b) People can be lead to accept false memories c) Confidence in the accuracy of a memory is not a good indication of actual accuracy d) All of the above 17. Which of the following best describes the effects of levels of processing on encoding when subjects are told that they will have a free recall memory test for the material they are encoding? a) Knowledge of an upcoming memory test decreases the effect of levels of processing. b) Knowledge of an upcoming memory test greatly improves  subjects’  performance,  relative  to   subjects who were not told about the test beforehand. c) both A and B d) none of the above 18. Subjects study a list of words in random order, and are tested in a free recall task. Even though the subjects were not told, all of the words in the list come from 5 categories (eg types of flowers, types of furniture, etc). The subjects will be most likely to a) recall the words in the order in which they were presented. b) recall the words by category. c) recall the words in random order. d) recall the words in terms of difficulty. 19. Studies of the encoding specificity effect have typically found that a) performance was better for recognition than for recall. b) performance was better for recognition than for recall when the recall context matched the encoding context and the recognition context did not. c) performance was better for recall than for recognition when the recall context matched the encoding context and the recognition context did not. d) none of the above 5 20. Forgetting something due to interference from items learned later is called _____; forgetting due to interference from items learned earlier is called _____. a) proactive interference; release from proactive interference b) proactive interference; retroactive interference c) retroactive interference; proactive interference d) retroactive interference; release from proactive interference 21. Which of the following is NOT true about memory retrieval? a) Retrieval is usually better when more information is provided. b) Retrieval is usually better for recognition than for recall. c) Retrieval is usually worse when more of the original encoding context is supplied. d) Retrieval is usually worse if encoding takes place at a shallow rather than deep level. 22.  Which  kinds  of  evidence  support  Baddeley’s  theory  that  working  memory  holds  separate   verbal and visual representations? a) visual tasks interfere more with visual than with verbal memory b) verbal tasks interfere more with verbal than with visual memory c) both A and B d) none of the above 23. In a memory experiment, subjects are repeatedly presented with the names of several animals, which they must recall after a brief distracter task. On each trial, a different set of names is presented. Which is the most likely outcome? a) On the first trial, people will be very unlikely to be able to recall the names. b) Performance will get worse with more trials. c) Performance will get better with more trials. d) both a and c 24. Which of the following statements is true about spatial representations? A. People have extensive knowledge about space, stored in analog form. B. People have propositional knowledge about spatial relations. C. People organize their spatial information to include non-spatial information. D. all of the above 25. Which is an example of spatial neglect? A. when brain-injury patients use propositional but not analog representation B. being unaware of obje
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