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Midterm 1 Lectures 1-6 - January 7-Feb 11 - PSYCH 2TT3

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Brett Beston

Psych 2TT3 2013 Lecture 1January 7 2013 Chapter 3Proximate Factors Animal BehaviourClass DiscussionCharacteristics of Animals o Immune system o Consume other organisms o Movement o Communication o Neural structures o Instinct o There is adult maturationaged body form ie adults look different than babiesAnimals Kingdom Animaliaone of the 3 kingdoms of multicellular organismsGrebe Clip o Dance to assess mateshows characteristics and physical abilities True of False o Mothers speak to different aged children the same wayFalseHadenmothers use same conversation styles elaborative or repetitive with different aged children o Few students will confess to ruining a computer program if they didnt do itFalseKassin and Kiechelfound that 69 of students in their study falsely confessed to ruining a computer program and signed a written confession o Most individuals will notice if a person they are talking to is switched to another person midconversationFalseSimons and Levinfound that 47 of participants in one study and 33 of participants in a second study noticed that the person changed to a different person midway through their conversationOur visual system flickers moment by moment and visual memories fill in blank spacesOur perception allows us to see a relatively clear imageWe perceive less than we thinkHow do we depend on animalsHow do animals affect the apples we eat o Pollution o Dispersal o Contaminationpests o The flowers on apple trees require pollination o Several insect species feed on apples worms which are insect larvae o Can use other insects instead of pesticideSeveral insect species feed on flies and larvaeEg Parasitoid waspsFly learning and human mental health o Memoryenhancing drugs and the treatment of mental retardation in humans o Genetic therapy o Video A Gene You Wont ForgetFruit fly DNAsimilar to humansTim Tulleymemory enhancementSeveral dozen flies in contraption lined with several electrical coilsSlight shock to feet low current Chemical scent releasedSee if flies create association with scent and experience shockGiven option of going through two tubes one has no scent one has the scent Long term memory of odorshock presentationfly must practice repeatedly10 training sessions without interval betweenno LT memory15 minute rest interval between training sessions is necessaryKreb gene inserted into flyformed association after 1 training sessionKreb Gene in humanstransfers ST memory to LT memory acts as a switchIf Kreb gene can be targeted with a drug and move switch to closer to oncan have better memorySimilar mechanisms between flies and humans regarding the way we learnClassical conditioning and learning occurs in fliesIntervals and not crammingUses of animalbehaviour researchEntertainment pets zoos safaris nature programmes on TVModel systems for human applicationsProtection of rare endangered animalsControl of pests and damagereductionBirds and Airplanes1 Psych 2TT3 2013 o Collisions between wildlife and aircraft have resulted in the loss of over 400 aircraft since 1950 and over 100 human lives since 1995 o Collisions between aircraft and birds cost the aviation industry over 12 billion per year o In Canada over 800 bird strike incidents are reported each yearo BirdAirplane Collisionmost airports employ control teams that do research on and run programs for reducing bird collisionRelease other birds that is predatory to migratory birdso Research in Israel has reduced birdaircraft collisions and damage by 85 saved human and bird life and over US 400 million per year o All pilots required to take 6 months course to reduce aircraftbird collisions study migration pattern of birdsChapter 3 Proximate FactorsWhy do animals do what they doHow do sea turtles navigate the ocean to lay their eggs on the same beach where they were hatchedHow do honeybees know when the hive needs more foodAnimal behaviour asks what why and howAnimal behaviourethology o Ethologistsscientists who study animal behaviour Jane GoodallScientific Approaches in Animal Behaviour ResearchEthologists do not attempt to describe why an animal does a behaviour before describing what the animal is doingo Eg two gophers interacting with each other rolling and hopping around running to and from each otherObserved behaviour can be interpreted as many different things o Play o Mating rituals o Aggression defending territoryHow to determine whyan action patternAction patters are complex behaviours that are always repeated the same way by a species of animal o Action patterns are stereotypedthey occur the same way each time and through to completion o Only then do we attempt to determine why a behaviour is being doneNiko TinbergPioneer in the field of animal behaviourObserved animals in their natural conditions then manipulated or varied the conditions to see how the animals respondedObserved how beewolfs find its next among other beewolf nests o Find area rich in pollen that is far from nest o Beewolfs would circle its nest in an everwidening circle before flying away to huntaction pattern o After beewolf flew off Tinberg would move certain landmarks around the nest o When the beewolf returns it was disoriented Tinberg has to describe and investigate what the organism was doing before attempting to explain whyScientific Approaches in Animal Behaviour ResearchFrom a scientific approach explain why songbirds sing o Females done often sing can create male defense song male will think intruder is coming and will return to next female will jump off eggs and male will land Scientific ApproachesFunction why vs mechanism howUltimate vs proximate mechanisms o Proximateclose to beside responsible for producing behaviour or triggers a change in behaviour a trigger o Ultimatewhat is the function of this behaviour what is it doing for the animal in the environment Adaptive significance vs machinery genetics physiology neurobiology endocrinologyExampleplumage color in male house finches o Plumage variation between males and females and among males o Adaptive significance of red plumage o Generation of red coloration o Males more colorful than females o Proximate MechanismsRed coloration comes from carotenoid pigments ingested in foodChoosing to eat more carotenoidrich food results in more red plumageMales seek out carotenoidrich foodsresults in colorationPositive Relationship between father and son plumage score2 Psych 2TT3 2013oUltimate Mechanisms Adaptive significant of red plumage Positive correlation between male mating success and redcolor intensity Color differences that persist over time from generation to generationdriving force that causes males to seek out carotenoidrich foodFemales respond to colorcolorful males attract more mates and find mates 23x faster Recovery from Infectionmore disease among less colorful malesMicroplasma galsomethingInfected eyes and measured how fast they recoveredNegative scorelesser sign of infectionRedless signs of infection recordered more quickly Feeding Youngmore brightly colored malesmore likely to return to feed young Tends to be a higher level of coloration in offspring because some behaviour Genetic component males the offspring seek out high carotenoid rich resources and increased chances of genes being passed on o Why is there such large plumage variationboth proximate and ultimate causesMales but nt females actively seek carotenoidrich foodsMales who can afford seeking color instead of enery are probably of better qualityFemales estimate male quality based on red color3
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