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Final

Human Sexuality - Final.docx

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Department
Psychology
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PSYCH 3AC3
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Jennifer Ostovich

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P S Y C H 3 A C 3 : H u m a n S e x u a l i t y P a g e | 1 Short Term Mating: Women Tuesday, March 5th, 2013 Evidence that Women Engage in STM: o The Math: if men are having ST mates, then women are too o The Numbers: there is high extra marital sex/EPC's: extra-pair copulation; about 1/10 men are raising a child they think is there's but is not Costs of ST Mating: o Costs for women are much more severe than men:  Pregnancy without an investing mate: Daly & Wilson (1988) found that women in this state are more likely to infantilize. There is also a higher mortality rate with one parent. o Lowered desirability as a LT mate: men don't like promiscuous women (even in Sweden) o Risk of STD's/STI's o If the person has a LT mate he might: leave, beat or kill you o Risk of abuse by LT mate and/or ST mate and/or family Adaptive Benefits of ST Mating: o There are many theories, not that much research o Four Hypothesises: resources, solving current problems with LT mate, use ST mating to achieve LT goals, use of ST mating to improve quality of offspring Resources: 1. Resources Accrual Hypothesis: In exchange for sex, you get resources e.g. food, money, protection 2. Paternity Confusion Hypothesis: Get pregnant, then engage in many ST relationships and tell them all that they are the father. This way you get few resources from the X number of people you ST mated with. Resource: Parental Investment 3. Protection Enhancement Hypothesis: He could exchange in protection of you and your offspring. E.g. In a situation where you mate is not around, and you are in harm the ST mate might protect you for a bit. Resource: Protection 4. Status Enhancement Hypothesis: You will give sexual access to high status males that increase your own states. You also could gain access to other high status men through him and maybe gain a LT mate that is of high status. Problem: you need to be careful because you don't want a promiscuous status! Resources: LT Mate Solving Problems: 1. Mate Switching Hypothesis: Like to see if you can get a higher quality mate, if you can, you can leave your LT mate to be with the ST mate. If not, you can stick with your LT mate. This is a trade up, where the ST mate can be a potential LT mate for the woman. P S Y C H 3 A C 3 : H u m a n S e x u a l i t y P a g e | 2 2. Mate Expulsion Hypothesis: Your mate is not of value anymore causing you desperate to get away. So you have an affair with someone to get kicked out by the LT mate. You want to get rid of your current mate, hence why you are getting into a ST relationship. Problem: LT mate can kill you! 3. Mate Manipulation Hypothesis: He is sleeping around on you, so you retaliate. This is a warning to your LT mate: if you keep having affairs I will too, and give you a bad reputation OR get pregnant with their offspring. This also shows the LT mate that other men want to have sex with her and reminded the LT mate of how "sexy" she is. This strategy is about keeping him, but wanting him to stop his actions. ST Mating for LT Goals: 1. Figure Out What you Want in a LT Mate: This can help you figure out generally what type of guy you like, and what type of sex you like. 2. Figure Out Whether you Want a LT Relationship with the ST Mate: o Test compatibility o Discover hidden Costs e.g. Children you don't know about, Doesn't have many resources are you thought o By ramping up the intimacy you get to know him better 3. Hone Seduction Skills for Future Potential LT Mates: o Having casual sex to learn how to seduce an actual LT mate. Males in this situation might not be aware of this. Genetic Benefits: 1. Fertility Enhancement Hypothesis: LT mate is infertile, so you do ST mating to get pregnant. You still love your LT mate; you just want a baby with your own genes as well. You will pass it off as your husbands. 2. Good Genes Hypothesis: Want to stick with LT mate, but you want "sexy songs". You want children that have really good kids after. You love your LT mate; however his genetic quality is not that great. 3. Genetic Diversity: if vessels that carry your genes are al genetically different, when various problems come up and you need a certain genetic profile to fight well then some might have the ability to fight off the disease. If you have diversity some of children might survive while others die. You still love your mate; you just want a higher chance of your own genes surviving. The Data: o Mate expulsion/mate switching (Greiling & Buss, 2000)  Did a survey on the likelihood that you benefit from an affair. Had 28 characteristics and the top answers were: To break up with partner (expulsion) & I'll find a more desirable partner (Switching)  Women are most likely to have an affair if: they find out mate is cheating, abusive behaviour, wanting more compatible partner, meeting someone that will spend time, someone with a higher value especially higher resources o Resources  Rated tenth: receiving resources for sex e.g. free dinner, money, jewelry, clothing  Would have an affair if current partner can't hold a job, and would like to find a richer man P S Y C H 3 A C 3 : H u m a n S e x u a l i t y P a g e | 3 o ST mating for LT Goals:  Asked what women won't like in a ST mate - women didn't like men who are in a LT relationship or are promiscuous, they didn't like that he'd be unavailable  Li & Kenrick (2006) - Looked are reasons why women were having casual sex: 1) Physically Attracted (good genes), 2) I wanted to a LT relationship and was hoping the ST would turn into LT. Data on Good Genes: o Women ST Preferences: like masculine, dominant men that are desirable to other women. Men who are daring, confident and sexual. Sexy genes offspring. o Men's symmetry predicts women's willingness to be an EPC partner. Women like symmetrical men. It was measured that symmetrical men's face and bodies were highly more likely to have sex with someone's wife. Men are probably responding to women's desire (women are throwing themselves at symmetrical men) o Shits in women's preferences during ovulation: women like better looking men when they are ovulating: symmetrical faces & bodies, masculine faces & bodies, taller and socially dominant men. You also turn more likely to cheat during ovulation, unless your LT mate has sexy genes. Then you turn more attracted your own mate. o Orgasm - women when ovulating and having an EPC are more likely to have an orgasm. On average you lose about 35% of sperm after ejaculation within 30 min.  Study 1: when women have an orgasm, they lose only about 30% of the sperm. SO your chance of getting pregnant goes higher. Having an orgasm increases sperm retention.  Study 2: when & with whom are women most likely to orgasm? Women cheated during ovulation, and have an orgasm with the EPC. This suggestions that women want to boost their reproductive genes with and EPC. Individual Differences Variables Prediction Selection of a STM Strategy: o Father Absence: dad left before puberty  Earlier puberty (especially girls, sometimes boys), which causes higher sex drive and more willing to have casual sex and having sex early  Loss of "daughter guarding" - dad isn't guarding her from boys e.g. Rupunzel  Loss of LT mating model - dad is gone and children are raised alone so there is no example of a happy marriage to the kids. Affects boys and girls.  Loss of dad's resources - this creates a motivation to attract men to provided resources for the exchange of sex o Sex Ratio: proportion of men to women  Surplus of eligible women. If there is too women, there isn't enough men going around so they are in high demand. This causes men to have power and women cannot be choosy but they still want offspring. Men can seek variety and women need to take what they get.  Hill & Hurtado (1996) - looked at Paruguay cultures that have 50% more women and noticed that there was much more ST relationships present P S Y C H 3 A C 3 : H u m a n S e x u a l i t y P a g e | 4  Surplus of eligible men favours women's choosiness. Man wants to keep you because there is too many competitors. Marriage is common and divorce is unlikely. o Predictive value of Self-Perceived Mate Value & Self-Esteem: Gender Differences  Men - self perceived perception. "Members of the opposite sex notice compliment me." If men agree to this, they tend to have sex at an earlier age, more sex partners, more sexual invitations in the last 3 years, have more intercourse with more partners, and are less socially sexually restricted.  Women - self-esteem: how you feel about yourself overall. Women with lower self-esteems tend to have more sex partners since puberty, are less socially sexually restricted. "I suck, maybe by having sex I will feel better! I don't want a LT relationship, because then they will find out about my insecurities!" Summary: o Women DO engage in short term mating o They use short term mating to enhance reproductive success - Just like men! o They also use ST mating to achieve LT mating goals to enhance reproductive success - Men's worst fear! Social Perceptions of Vocal & Facial Sexual Dimorphism: Attractiveness, Fitness Risks & Intrasexual Competition Monday, March 11th, 2013 Voice Pitch: o Sexually Dimorphic: it is different in men and in women --> lower in men o We push air through our lungs, through our vocal folds and in our vocal cord --> women have smaller & thinner vocal folds o Testosterone determines how large your vocal folds are  For males after puberty vocal folds increase by 60%  For females after puberty vocal folds increase by 30% Facial Masculinity/Femininity: o Before puberty, males and females look similar o Testosterone after puberty masculine's the face o Estrogen inhibits and masculinisation Female Femininity: o Reproductive Potential: people who are younger look more feminine so they have more potential to have babies o Fertility: have higher quality eggs and are more likely to conceive and WANT to conceive more (Survey indicated that women who wanted babies looked more feminine) o Health: reported fewer illnesses than other people, so this trait would pass down to offspring P S Y C H 3 A C 3 : H u m a n S e x u a l i t y P a g e | 5 o Infidelity: increased risk of infidelity, greater likelihood to kiss, flirt, and cheat on significant other. If the person predicts or intend on cheating, they actually will have more affairs. Male Masculinity: o Health: higher levels of testosterone causes better scores on illness reports o Dominance: they are perceived of being more dominant, so increased access to resources o Reduced Investment: less likely to be in a committed relationship, and if they are in on it isn't stable or ends with divorce o Infidelity Risk: cheat more often Preferences for Masculinity/Femininity: o Men generally prefer feminine traits o Women's masculinity preferences vary:  During Ovulation/High Fertility: women prefer masculine traits more when they are likely to conceive  Birth Control/Lactation inhibit preference for masculinity  Short-term Relationship: prefer masculine faces and lower voices for ST relationships s  Higher Attractiveness: women who think they are more attractive will want more masculine men --> this is proven in FACES only, not voices Unanswered Questions: 1. Do voices preferences depend upon facial masculinity (or vice versa)?  We don't have research on faces and voices, they are always tested alone --> in the real world they are encountered together 2. Are perceivers aware of the potential fitness costs associated with preferring masculine/feminine mates? 3. How does vocal & facial sexual dimorphism influence intrasexual competition?  We haven't investigated same-sex individuals, or competition between men for women or vice versa Study 1: Attractiveness o Faces & voices were encountered together o 63 females - took photos of their faces and men voted from 1-7 for attractiveness o Women watched videos of men saying "one" and voted from 1-7 for attractiveness o No evidence that faces are interacted with voices - Women preferred feminine faces, and masculine voices o Women who were more attractive (rated by men) have a stronger preference for masculine voices & faces o Summary:  Facial & vocal masculinity influence perceptions of attractiveness in an independent ways  Female attractiveness predicts strength of masculinity preferences P S Y C H 3 A C 3 : H u m a n S e x u a l i t y P a g e | 6 Study 2: Fitness Costs o Infidelity is costly to both men and women o Feminine women and masculine men present a greater risk of infidelity o 54 men and 61 women listened to voices of their own sex and the opposite sex and were asked: Who is likely to cheat on their romantic partner? Which voice is more attractive to you?  Women ratings:  They did not know which voice would be more likely to cheat with women BUT thought feminine voices were more attractive  They thought masculine voices were attractive, and thought they were more likely to cheat  Men ratings:  They did know which voice would be more likely to cheat with men BUT thought masculine voices were more attractive  They thought feminine voices were more attractive and were more likely to cheat  Results:  Voice pitch influences opposite-sex perceptions of fidelity (and not attractiveness)  Uncorrelated with voice pitch preference  Perceivers somewhat aware of potential fitness risks  May be an attractive heuristic Study 3: Fitness Costs - looked JUST at voices o Infidelity is not the only fitness cost o 138 females listened voices and rated them on:  Which voices would give time and effort? - feminine voices  Financially generous - feminine voices  Save vs. spend money - voice pitch did not play an influence  Who would you want ST relationship with? - masculine voices  Who would want LT relationship with? - masculine voices o Long Term Relationships:  Women think masculine voices will be better investing partners and more generous  Women like lower-pitched voices for LT, showing that they perceive masculine voices as a good LT mate Study 4: Same Sex (Intrasexual Competition) o Preferred traits are likely to be targets of competition  Women were jealous of feminine voices AND faces. Women know that feminine faces were attractive.  Men were jealous of masculine voices BUT NOT faces (probably because women's preferences varied). However, they did find the masculine faces more attractive. P S Y C H 3 A C 3 : H u m a n S e x u a l i t y P a g e | 7 Social Psychology Approach: Proximate Causes Tuesday, March 12th, 2013 Overview: o Reward Model: we end up with people that are rewarding to us for friendship or mate. E.g. laugh at our jokes, compliment us, make us feel better o How do you find these rewarding people?  Propinquity: they need to be physically close to you e.g. same city o Factors affection attraction to potential rewarding people?  Attractiveness, Reciprocation (they won't reject you), Similarity Propinquity: o We meet people because they are "around" us e.g. resident, classes, etc. o Physical proximity plays a role in whether we will:  Meet people, interact with people, like people, become attracted to people, fall in love with people o Westgate Study (1950): in a university, they built 17 buildings all called Westgate. They tested how people built relationships. "Who is your closest friend, and what proximity do they live to you?"  45% of subjects: closest friend was 1 door down; significantly lower as the doors were further away  88 feet between 1 door vs. 4 door – cut into a quarter (from 45% to 10%) the likelihood of someone being your best friend  It was also asked who you closest friend was outside your building, it was always the closest building. The further away the building, as well, the less likelihood they were friends o Why?  Ease of access - easy to bump into them: Presence makes the heart grow fonder (not absence)  Long distance relationships usually fail  Repeated Contact: seeing people over and over again will make you like them even more than before. The mere exposure to that person will make you like them.  Study (1992): 4 women, decently attracted (pre-rated as the same attractiveness). These 4 women either attended the lecture 1, 5, 10 or 15 times. The end of the term the men were asked how attractive they thought she was. The more they say her, the more attractive they though she was.  Mere Exposure - Familiarity makes the heart grow fonder o Cavet Study: sometimes presence and familiarity can be a bad thing  Obnoxious presence of someone you find irritation makes you more irritated  Study (1976) - Condo Study: Asked best friend and worst enemy in the condo. Both best friends and worst enemies tended to live closest. Proximity predicted both emotions. P S Y C H 3 A C 3 : H u m a n S e x u a l i t y P a g e | 8 Physical Attractiveness: o Are they good looking enough? Are they too good looking? o Evolutionary vs. Social Psychology Explanations --> Social psychologists explore what it means to be attractive and how it is rewarding/unrewarding to us o Heuristic - a thought or belief we have, "Rules of Thumb" o What is beautiful is good heuristic  These people seem more interesting, outgoing, sensitive, sexually responsible, exciting dates, have more successful future, fulfilling lives, and are happier people  Automatic, Unconscious: Beautiful people may be better people, but if we believe beautiful people are good, then we will act kind towards them and they will reciprocate. So we don't know what comes first - beautiful people being nice OR us being nice to beautiful people.  Cross Cultural Validity: even in other cultures beautiful people are seen as more "good"  Large Effect on Everything!  Frieze et al. (1991) MBA graduates' salaries. Study looked at salaries of U of Pittsburgh graduates and rated them on how attractive they were. They then looked at the salary of these peoples and noticed ten the more attractive the man was high salary increased by $2600, and for women it increased by $2150.  Downs & Lyons (1991) - Noticed that attractive people earned more, were fired less and had more jobs. Additionally, in Texas if the defendant was attractive, their fine was lower.  Snyder et al. (1997) Interaction Style - Brought in males and females who never met and had 10 minute phone conversations. They males were given a 3rd person's photo as the person they talked to. The photo is either gorgeous or okay looking. They made an observation of how outgoing/interested the males were.  It was observed that the male seemed much more interested when the female was beautiful.  It was observed that if the men thought they were attractive, the women were much more willing to talk  Woman responding to someone treating them like they were wonderful – social skills improved.  The way we treat someone. We should treat them like they are beautiful, because they become better conversation partners.  Goldman & Lewis (1977) Social Skill - brought in 2 people to have phone conversations. They then rated the partner on social skills. They then took a picture of themselves and were rated on attractiveness. The more attractive the people were, the more socially skilled they were. Thursday, March 4th, 2013 Costs & Benefits of Being Beautiful: o Lots of Benefits: More dates, smiles, better interactions, less lonely, happier, better social skills P S Y C H 3 A C 3 : H u m a n S e x u a l i t y P a g e | 9 o BUT Some Costs:  Get lied to a lot people misrepresent themselves in front of beautiful people, especially to get a date. Attractive people know this, so they think everyone is lying to them.  Study - Major et al. (1984): Subject wrote an essay and then a picture of their face is taken. All of the subjects get really good feedback but some of the essays had the picture attached, while others kept their picture. The subjects were rated on attractiveness.  Very attractive people believed the feedback more if the picture WASN'T attached, this shows that beautiful people know that others misrepresent themselves  Low attractive people believed the feedback more if picture WAS attached, showing that their mark was rated for their work not their beauty. Effects of Interacting With Beauty: o Benefit ---> puts us in a good mood o Cost ---> Contrast Effect: we compare ourselves with other people  Thornton & Moore (1993) - Shown attractive same sex people then fill out a survey about self rated attractiveness. If you saw pictures of beautiful people you rated yourself lower than people who saw average looking people. Contrasting your average looks with someone way at the top of the distribution affects your evaluation of other around you, you think they are just less good looking then they actually are because of the influence of the really attractive people. Contrast effect  you see something really beautiful and everything else looks really plain.  Kenrick & Gutierres (1989) - Men see pictures of beautiful nude women, rate feelings of love for their romantic partner and find their partner less sexually attractive then if they hadn’t seen the picture. Everyone in our pop culture is a little bit too good looking, which skews our opinion, causes us to not be able to correctly perceive normal people’s beauty. Other people also look less attractive after seeing someone really attractive.  For relationships there is one big problem with really attractive people  THEY MIGHT NOT LIKE US BACK  Very unrewarding. Afraid of the rejection that could occur if we ask a beautiful person out on a date. Reciprocation: o We like people who reciprocate our feelings towards them - it is rewarding to us! o We are likely to approach someone who we think likes us --- Rejection is NOT rewarding o Miller (1988) - Had a survey that presented photos of beautiful women and asked men if they would ask these women out if they didn't know her response (3% said yes). 97% said they'd have to get an idea of what'd she'd say or they would give up right away. The 3% that would ask the women out were the most attractive males in the study. P S Y C H 3 A C 3 : H u m a n S e x u a l i t y P a g e | 10 o Bernstein et al. (1983) - Had males come in and have 2 small cubicles where they'd show movies. He comes in and has to choose a room, in one room there already is a beautiful confederate sitting. The cubicles were either playing the same movies, or 2 different movies.  If the movies were the same: about 20% men would sit in the same cubicle. This is because they are afraid of getting the "look" form the female. The female would wonder why he would choose the same cubicle when the SAME movie was playing in another cubicle --> a look of REJECTION!  If the movies were different: about 70% of the men sat in the same cubicle. By having different movies, it gives them an excuse of sitting in the same cubicle.  SUMMARY: It is unrewarding to be rejected, this will let us choose who we will approach Similarity: o We like people who are similar to ourselves: comforting and reassuring --> No Arguments o Byrne's (1961) - Bogus Stranger Research:  He found out about the subject through surveys, and created a bogus person that is similar or dissimilar to them. People preferred the individuals that were similar to them and found them: more intelligent, better adjusting, knowledge and moral. o Byrne's (1970) - Blind Dates Research:  He made them do surveys and paired them up either on similarity, or dissimilarity. Similar dates were successful and would usually go on for another date (conversation was easy). Dissimilar people's date didn't go that well. Don't Opposites Attract? o Not usually, but sometimes o Felmlee's (1998) Fatal Attraction Theory: there is something about yourself you wish to change (e.g. you are introvert, and want to turn into an extrovert) so you get into a relationship with that person. At first the relationship is "fun" but then it turns annoying. The trait that made them attracted to each other makes them turn on each other.  Role of time: It takes some time to find "opposite" irritating Why do Opposites Seem Well Suited? 1. Sometimes it's because we don't notice that they are similar, but people think they are opposite (matching can be subtle) 2. We notice dissimilar things between the more readily. This is because the person might be constantly complain in ways they are dissimilar to their friends, so everyone things they are opposite, but they aren't. 3. We are biased against noticing dissimilarities. We ignore dissimilarities, and overtime they will vanish. However, our friends will notice! 4. In successful relationships, dissimilarities decrease over time --> Grow similar together P S Y C H 3 A C 3 : H u m a n S e x u a l i t y P a g e | 11 Time Reveals (Almost) All: o Discovering dissimilarities takes time - people might not notice dissimilarities at first, and once they do they will break up o Newcomb (1951) - got 17 young men living in a house and did research on them. He had subjects fill out surveys for them and asked at the beginning of the year who they were friends with (perceived similarity). At the end of the year, you build friendships with people you are ACTUALLY similar with. o Murstein's (1987) Stimulus-Value-Role Model:  Start with simple things (age, gender, looks), find you’re matched in these categories and begin a relationship; then you start to find out about their values; what they like to do in spare time, type of music, political orientation, thoughts of abortion; personality traits- extraverted, introverted, openness to experience (all of these under broad definition of value)  First stage: perceptually obvious characteristics (most salient)  Second stage: who is this person, what are they like, do they believe the same things I do- if you realize that you are not similar, may break up at this stage, and it is easy because you have not invested a lot of time in the relationship; or maybe discovered values, everything is okay, similar, continue on in the relationship  Third stage: role- basic approach to life; what is the approach to housework/ marriage/ career/ home life/ parenting; believe you are similar all the way through until you have to set up a household together (everything is similar except parenting styles- break up maybe); 3 things can happen: ignore dissimilarity, give up on relationship, or find some middle ground where you can both learn to live with it  Sunk costs: you have sunk so much time into the relationship that you can’t bring yourself to walk away (waiting at the bus stop) Similarity: o Perceived Similarity & Marital Satisfaction:  Opposites attract: you spend so much time complaining to your friend about this one thing that is dissimilar, so they believe you are not similar, although you are similar in most other ways  Illusory image: you partner can get away with a lot of stuff, and the marriage ends in disaster (divorce, taken advantage of, violence); you think your partner is acting this way because of you, or that they could do no wrong) o Similarity increases over time:  People who initially weren’t as similar as they thought become more similar over time; they are experiencing a lot of the same things because they are in a relationship (deaths in family, pets, etc.) P S Y C H 3 A C 3 : H u m a n S e x u a l i t y P a g e | 12 Love Monday, March 18th, 2013 Outline: o Love is a ‘Western thing’, many other cultures especially historically did not focus on this in marriage o Middle Ages- love and marriage: point is to produce children, make favourable alliances, and establish a bloodline o If you were to marry for love, you would be doomed; love is dangerous, a trap door leading to hell, love is not condoned even between husband and wife o Love is very nice, but perhaps you should avoid it anyways, because it can kill you (Romeo and Juliet) o Romantic era (1700-1900ish): seeing people marrying more and more often for love; sometimes you can be happy if you love your partner rather than doomed; but the idea that you should marry for love is still not prevalent th o Other cultures even in the 20 century still have many arranged marriages (economic or political reasons) o In western society, love and marriage go together Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love: o Intimacy - warmth, understanding, communication o Passion - heat, drive to be with someone, emotional need and draw to your partner o Commitment - decision to spend your life with someone, devote yourself to someone, work to maintain relationship with them o Non- love: no intimacy, no passion, no commitment- acquaintance (very superficial, not that important) o Friendship: high on intimacy, low on the other two (liking- could be your best friend) o Infatuation: high in passion, low on other two (high school crush); you want them, but you don’t really know that o Empty love: high in commitment, low on other two (parents who stay together for the sake of the kids- burnt out); how arranged marriages start out, but ideally they eventually develop the other things o Romantic love: high intimacy, high passion; this could be a summer love that you know is going away. There is a deep sense of liking & friendship and you want to be around them emotionally and physically. This doesn't "need" commitment. o Companionate love: high intimacy, high commitment; this is where many relationships end up because passion is very difficult to maintain. There is a strong relationship, a deep sense of love and commitment but there isn't a regular sense of passion. o Fatuous Love: lots of passion but has no commitment, you don't really "like" them o Consummate Love: complete love, you have all three types of love intertwined P S Y C H 3 A C 3 : H u m a n S e x u a l i t y P a g e | 13 Tuesday, March 19th, 2013 More on Romantic Love: o This includes: passion and intimacy o Where does passion come from?  If passion goes away, they just want intimacy/friendship  It is a sense of heightened arousal, but arousal cannot be maintained forever The Arousal - Passion Connection: o Two-Factor Theory of Emotion (Schachter & Singer - 1962):  Emotions are associated with arousal  Emotion: experience of an increased arousal state that you push towards an emotion. You are explaining your arousal by putting it towards an emotion  Experiment: Experimenters manipulated arousal by either giving subject's epinephrine or no epinephrine. Some of the people who took the epinephrine were told that they will be feel a heightened arousal, while others were not told what the epinephrine would do. Subjects then wait in a waiting room with a confederate this is either showing emotions of anger or happiness. The subjects that took the epinephrine and were uninformed about the affects had a heightened arousal and took the emotions of the confederate into their own emotion. The uninformed subjects didn't know why they felt aroused and they attributed the arousal to an emotion. o Two-Factor Theory of Love (Passion) - Dutton & Aron (1974):  They tested whether they could get subjects to be passionate about someone  There was a rope bridge about 300 ft above the ground. They talked to subjects coming off this bridge OR coming off another small bridge. They approached only males that were alone. The males were approached by either a male or female RA. The subjects were asked to take apart in a study and were shown a picture and told to tell a story. The picture was a picture of a man and a woman.  The subject's story was tested on how "sexual" the content was. The RA then gave their business car to the subject and told them to call if they wanted more information. It was estimated that if the subjects were aroused, they would give the female RA a ca
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