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Human Sexuality - 1st Midterm.docx

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Jennifer Ostovich

P S Y C H 3 A C 3 : H u m a n S e x u a l i t y - P a g e | 1 Introduction - Defining Sex Date: Monday January 7th, 2013 Why is Sex Interesting? o It is the basic driving force in human evolution o We are who we are because of sex - basis of our species What is Sex? o Sex is taboo - described by society as unacceptable or improper o Dr. Kellogg: was a prude that was against sex and said you shouldn't enjoy it. So he gave treatment such as placing carboxylic acid on the clit for females and doing circumcisions on males without anesthetics.  It's believed that he made Corn Flakes because he thought that the carbohydrates will stop people's sex drive o Dr. Freud: was seen as a pervert and did "glove therapy". He was right about how we need to have sex to function and restriction can cause frustration. o Dr. Kinsey: agreed with Freud and made many books on sex, however he used people that were comfortable with sex in his studies -- still good science o William Proximire - was a senator that thought it was a waste of money and time to spend research on things such as sex. The first person he targeted was Dr. Hatfield. She struggled to do any research on the top of sex. Date: Tuesday, January 8th, 2013 o Bill Clinton has "oral sex" with Monica, and didn't think it was sex but others thought it was sex  This is a problem when it comes to healthcare because when a doctor asks if the patient is sexually active - no one really knows what this mean - can have a STI and not know Would You Say You "Had Sex" If...? o Sanders & Reinish had a questionnaire if they would consider _______ as sex o This survey was done in the UK, Canada (slightly younger sample) and USA o The Canadian study added orgasms, who you consider as a "sex partner" and how you identify sexual infidelity (unfaithfulness) into the survey o Stuff Almost No-One considers "Sex":  French Kissing: on average men and women in all three countries thought this was not sex  Contact with Breasts: The highest average of people thinking this is sex was about 10% - not sex o Manual Stimulation of Genitals:  Without Orgasm: about 12% of people said it was sex - not majority  With Orgasm/Canadian Study: about 12% said it was sex - not majority o Oral Stimulation of Genitals:  Without Orgasm: about 40% of people said it was sex! However this is still not majority. P S Y C H 3 A C 3 : H u m a n S e x u a l i t y - P a g e | 2  With Orgasm/Canadian Study: a significant amount of men considered this as sex compared to the "no orgasm" however women stayed the same. -- still not sex on the whole o Anal Intercourse:  About 80% of people said it is sex o Vaginal Intercourse:  Almost 100% of people said it is sex So, What is Sex? o Depends (a bit) on who you are  No big significant difference in some behaviours, but men tend to think that "smaller" things are sex e.g. Oral sex  Probably because men want to increase their # and women want to lower their number  Men tend to exaggerate their numbers and women tend to decrease their numbers  You would think that orgasms played a bigger role according to the evolutionary perspective, because it is essential for men to reproduce, BUT getting orgasms did not make a significant difference o All in all, sex is when there is penetration between a penis and anus/genitals Thursday, January 10th, 2013 Canadian Study - Sex Partners: o Having "sex" may not be considered as your sex partner o In the graph it is evident that more people consider smaller things as their "sex partners" but still don't think the act is "sex" o This creates a PROBLEM! Sex partner is a broader definition. So when you are doing studies you need to ensure operalization - carefully define your variables Canadian Study - What about Cheating?: o Seems to be that almost everyone thinks EVERYTHING is being unfaithful o This might be a mindset that kissing may lead to more in the future Sex: Anal & vaginal is sex to most people. No gender differences for calling something sex. P S Y C H 3 A C 3 : H u m a n S e x u a l i t y - P a g e | 3 Sex Drive Sex Drive: Why do we choose to have sex? - Measuring this is difficult but important! Measuring Sex Drive: o Kinsey's Behavioural Measure - "Total sexual outlet"  He measure the # of orgasms you must achieve per given unit time  Positives to his study were:  He did not ask about how many times you have sex  He did not simple just ask "how many times do you have sex" because people compromise all the time by being forced to or being turned down. By saying "you must achieve" it disregards the compromising conflict  One major flaw to his study:  Women do not have orgasms as often as men, so this study undermines their sex drive. This means that his study is only accurate for males. o Attitudinal Measures: Sexual Desire Inventory:  This is intent or wish for sexual activity  e.g. During the last month how often did you want sexual activity such as touching each other, etc.  E.g. In your everyday life how desirable is your sex drive when you see an attractive person  E.g. Masturbation - How important is it to reach your sexual desire by yourself  These questions get away from gender differences of orgasms o Dr. Ostovich's Measure: TOS Plus:  Mix of both Kinsey's and Attitudinal Measures  There are four items --> Not perfect but pretty good 1) How often do you experience sexual desire? (Att.) 2) How often do you orgasm in the average month? (Beh.) 3) How often do you masturbate in the average month? (Beh.) 4) How would you compare your level of sex drive with that of the average person of your gender and age? (Att.) Correlates of Sex Drive: o Gender: Can predict their gender  Men appear to be more sexually driven o Attitudes About Casual Sex: Social Sexual Orientation  Measures to extent with how willing you are to have casual sex  If you have a high sexual drive, you technically should be willing to have a lot of casual sex --> After the surveys this had a high correlation, so this statement is correct P S Y C H 3 A C 3 : H u m a n S e x u a l i t y - P a g e | 4 o Sexual Behaviours:  Timing of First Sexual Experience: The higher your sex drive, the younger you were when you first had a sexual experience  Lifetime Number of Sex Partners: People willing to have casual sex have more sex partners, which can be also associated with sex drive. So you need to have high sex drive AND willing to have casual sex to have a high # of lifetime partners.  Frequency of Sexual Intercourse: Higher sex drive means that they are having more sex o Timing of Puberty:  Kinsey found that in men, the younger you were when you hit puberty, the higher your sex drive. We are not sure why, but this is the case for MEN ONLY! o Timing of First Experience of Sexual Arousal:  For both men and women, the younger you were when you had your first experience, the higher your sex drive o Sexual Orientation:  High sex drive is associated with gay and bisexual timing of puberty which is associated with sexual orientation. Lesbian and bisexual women on average got puberty 1 and 1/2 years before heterosexual women. They also had their first experience of sexual arousal 1 and 1/2 years before heterosexual women. Baumeister's Erotic Plasticity Hypothesis Monday, January 14th, 2013 o Malleable: easily influences, able to be pressured permanently out of shape o Erotic Plasticity: women sexuality is more malleable to situations, culture, etc. Women tend to be able to switch their interests of their sexuality more easily than men.  Feminist & Evolutionists tried to explain this idea in their own different ways, at first they were against this idea, but after the amount of proof they made their hypothesis.  Sexual Revolution - women's sex behaviours changed a lot, men stayed pretty neutral Main Ideas: o Women's sexuality is more malleable than men's o High EP = more malleable to situational/cultural values o Three Predictions 1) Over history, women's values and behaviours should shift more than men 2) Women should have larger responses to socio-cultural responses than men e.g. Sexual Revolution, Religion, Education 3) Women's attitudes towards things should not correlate with their behaviours e.g. Against anal sex, but has anal sex o Erotic Plasticity: Women are different than men! --> This can be seen as offensive to people because it seems like it's saying women are "less" than men, but this isn't true P S Y C H 3 A C 3 : H u m a n S e x u a l i t y - P a g e | 5 1) Prediction - Intra-individual Variability: o Kinsey et al. (1953): Gender difference in total sexual outlet over time  Found that for women the orgasms they needed a week was changing: they masturbated a lot one month, and didn't for a few weeks. However, men were consistent with the number of orgasms they needed  Also found that men always masturbated to compensate for a loss of a partner (e.g. death or break up). However with women it varied, they might compensa
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