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Final Exam Review Notes

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Hong Sun

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Final Exam ReviewHistoryWilliam James William James is best known for his book entitled Principles of Psychology He divided habit association and memory into separate chapters and later described habit and memory as being precursors to this idea of declarative and nondeclarative memory A point that James brought forward was the idea that conscious experience requires memory He described the memory system as having two levels primary memory which are involved in consciousness and secondary memory which comprises our permanent record of the past These two levels were later called shortterm and longterm memory Edward Thorndike Edward Thorndike was one of the first psychologists to perform systematic experiments on the learning process Through the use of stimuli as input and recording the response output Thorndike later extended his research to study animal learning He used instrumental conditioning operant conditioning Ivan Pavlov Classical ConditioningPavlov was the first scientist to demonstrate that salivation can be evoked by a previously neutral stimulus after it has been paired with an effective stimulus For example using a ringing bell as a stimulus and pairing it with the conditioned stimulus of food Karl Lashley Search for the Engram Engram the memory trace that is persumably present in the brain after something is learnedKarl Lashley predicted that specific cortical connections were formed during conditioning procedures He found no evidence that destruction or removal of any specific area of the cerebral cortex could either erase the engram or cause the prevention of learning His results suggested that the amount of cortical tissues destroyed was far more important than the location of the damage These results forced Lashley to reject the localizationist position Instead he came to the view that specific memories were diffusely distributed throughout the cerebral cortex and that all parts of the cortex were equally involved in learningPatient HM Multiple Memory Systems Multiple Memory Systems multiple functionally and anatomically distinct brain systemsPatient HM suffered from epilepsy and as an ultimate cure underwent a medial temporal bisection of his frontal lobes While the surgery did eliminate his seizures he became unable to form new memories This impairment led researchers to make the assumption that the medial temporal lobe is selective to memory given that the patients other cognitive processes were still intact Patient HM underwent a series of different tests and tasks to test his memory impairment He scored within a normal average on both the digit span and probe digit tasks as well as in the mirrorreverse drawing motor task What marked HMs memory impairment was his ability to remember events and memories that occurred prior to his surgery but as unable to recall delayed events or information after This study of HM brought scientists to the conclusion that the distinction between declarative and procedural memory was more important than the distinction between verbal and motor memory HMs ability to not recall memories events or facts which is contained within declarative memory but able to learn through procedure rather than conscious learning contained within procedural memory gives rise to the idea that more than one memory level may be present within the memory systemDonald O Hebb Neurons that fire together wire together Hebb revealed conditions that might be required to produce changes at synapses He proposed that a functional relationship between a presynaptic neuron A and a postsynaptic neuron B could change is A frequently took part in exciting B A repeated excitation of B by A creates a growth process or metabolic change where As efficacy as one of the cells firing B is increased An extension of this hypothesis was that any two cells that are repeatedly active at the same time will tend to become associated so that activity in ne facilitates activity in the otherRosenweig and Associates Rosenweig and associates tested two conditions In one condition the rats received formal training and were tested in a spatial problem task In the other condition the rats received informal training The researchers measured AchE activity in the cerebral cortex which the two groups performed the task They found that the group that had been trained and tested did better on more difficult problems than those given easier problems and the groups given no training and testing The rats who had received informal training had a more enriched experience increased AchE and increased neocortex weight This study led to further studies that examined that changes can be produced throughout a lifespan and could happen rather quickly They found that changes were not uniformly distributed around the brain largest change in the occipital
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