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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 3JJ3
Professor
Louis A Schmidt
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYCH 3JJ3 – September 6, 2013 Kagan 1) Nurture to nature – people thought that nurture was more important, but genetic predispositions also play a role 2) These children may have the predisposition, subjective reports are not always reliable (from teachers and parents) from self-report. 3) We shouldn’t only look at clinical populations. We can also look at extreme ends of typical developing children - Study of 4 month olds, novel stimuli and reactions o 1) high motor activity and positive affect o 2) high motor and high negative affect – o 3) no reaction, laid back – aka California babies Kate - in a free play - Unoccupied on looking behaviour – not participating, jus looking back - Kate tries to leave, other child tries to play with her - Birthday speech – she is looking down o Her turn to talk – she puts her head down and doesn’t participate - Limitations – cross sectional design – she could have been having a bad day Joey - studied longitudinally - 14 months - Staying close to mom, not into the toys he’s being shown - 24 month – still close to mom - In response to a tunnel – looks at it but runs back to mom - 4 yrs – free play – running out room - Sits in corner alone - Joey at 7 – still goes in corner, unoccupied - Others ask him to play and doesn’t play PSYCH 3JJ3- Setpember 10, 2013 - Video from Friday? o Joey and kate o Kate- cross ssectional, age 4 – some evidence that Kate was anxious, but limitations because it was just one point in time o Joey – across time – consistent behaviours in many ways o 1) Over time – temperament – continuous o Cortisol levels – joey and kate show already elevated levels, lower RSA (heart rate stability), even in familiar situations o 2) These are typically developing children – there is no history of mental health problems in the child or family o 3) (Jerome kegan) objective quantifying of child’s behaviours, rather than subjectively having parents, teachers, etc. Describe them - Ways to measure emotion – behaviour, physiological o Advantages and disadvantages of these measures What is the study of social development? - Description of children’s o Social behaviour and how it changes over time o Knowledge ofthemselves and others o Ideas about relationships awith peers and adults o Emotional expressions and displays o Ability to frunction in social groups - And examination of how other aspects of development underlie children’s social behaviour Historical Foundations - Medival period – children as miniature adults - Darwin – study of emotion o Looked at shyness in children - Hall – use of questionnaires (for parents to complete on child), child labs - Watson – conditioning of social and emotional behaviour - Freud – basic drives - Gesell – maturation view of social skills How do biological and environmental influences affect social development - Roles of nature – biology, maturation (unfolding of increasingly complex social skills and abilities) - Roles of nurture – environment, learning - Environment x Biology is the modern view, not either o The case of “Genie” - Study – evidence of a gene-environment interaction o Collected cheek cells from children, genotyped these cells o Serotonin transporter gene – 5Htt – long vs short and shyness (at age 7) o No differences found o 2 ways to measure shyness – maternal report, in-lab behaviour o Social support o Children who are carriers of the short allele in combination with mothers who perceive themselves as low social support – results in high shyness o So the gene plus the environment is what produces the shyness - Second study o Children who are homozygotic for the SHORT allele with increased maltreatment are at most risk for depression o Heterozygotic are at second most risk with increased maltreatment o Level of maltreatment has no affect on Homozygotic long allele people’s depression PSYCH 3JJ3- Setpember 12, 2013 Social development What role do children play in their own development? - Transactional model of social development ongoing interchanges between social partners such as a parents and child across time that results in modifications of the social behaviour of each - This model emphasizes the process by which the child actively shapes his or her own development What is the appropriate unit for studying social development? - Individual child - Social dyads o A pair of social partners, such as friends, parents and child, marital partners - Social triads - Peer groups - Or are all social units important? Yes Is social behaviour the result of the situation or child? - Does child behave different in different situations? - OR - Do individual characteristics lead children behave similarly across different situations? Study - Person by context interactions - “Relation between shyness and online self disclosure with and without a live webcam in young adults” - Does context alter behaviour - Computer mediated communication - Individuals selected – extreme high and low shyness – based on self-report - Interacting with each other via internet – chatting - Tighter experimental design since it is online vs in person - In one condition – webcam vs no webcam – only visual, no audio - Results o Group (shy vs non-shy) vs. Number of prompted self-disclosure (person asking questions) o Shy people more comfortable without webcam, non-shy more comfortable with webcam o Large different in shy people in webcam vs no webcam, not a large difference (not significant difference) for non-shy people o Results are the same for all groups except for shyXwebcam – significantly lower STUDY - “Sex differences in the expression and use of computer-mediated affective language – does context matter?” - Person-level factor- male vs. Female - Male to male and female to female interactions - Context-level factor – - Affective content can be derived from the language used - Arousing language, calming language, etc. - Results o Conditions – webcam vs. No webcam o Y – proportion of active words (engaging, involvement, etc.) o X - Male to male, Female to female o Tested for how positive vs negative, how arousing vs. Calm o Males – with webcam they use fewer active words than with no webcam (significant difference) o Females – with webcam use same number of active words (slightly more with webcam, but not significant) Study - Emoticon use - Number of emoticons – Y - Male and male – with or without webcam - Female and female – with or without webcam - Only significant difference – women with webcam used a significantly larger amount of emoticons than without webcam Is social development universal across cultures? - Culture-free laws of development – acquiring the basic foundations of social life - OR - Variation in beliefs and child rearing practices across cultural settings – variation in patterns of social behaviour - OR - Could it be both? STUDY - “Cross-cultural differences in children’s emotional reactions to a disappointing situation” (2007) PSYCH 3JJ3- Setpember 13, 2013 Is social development universal across cultures? - Study- facial expression on infants when being given shots o Consistency found across cultures o Systematic physiological emotional o Higher order emotions are more culturally influenced – ex. jealousy - Study – Chen, studies in Asia (mostly China) o Parents in the west generally want to socialize their children to become more outgoing and assertive o Parents in the east accept less assertive behaviour o “Cross-cultural differences in children’s emotional reactions to a disappointing situation” o First generation Chinese Americans and white Americans o Limitations – does not cover all cultures o Participants and procedures  Cross cultural differences in emotional expressions following disappointment were examined in 59 chinese American (CA) and 58 europeans American (EA) children  Parents and children split up  Children aged four or seven participated in a disappointing gift situation. Children told that at the end, they would receive a toy prize. Range of toys – attractive and age-appropriate toys vs. Cheap and irrelevant toys. They were given the option to select the toy. Most children chose the attractive toys (CAs and EAs)  After tasks, experimenter says brb with the toy. Then another experimenter comes in and gives the child the cheap toy instead. Reactions were recorded.  Wide range of behaviours o Measures coded and results  Dimensions of expressive behaviours following disappointment were coded and included positive, negative, social monitoring and tension behaviours  EA children demonstrated more total expressive behaviours more than CA children  Some gender differences o Conclusions  Study provides possible limits on the universality of some emotions o Infant study (4moths) 3 groups • Caucasian- American – motor, crying, fretting, vocalizing, smiling • Irish (not American) – same behaviours • Chinese (not American) - same  Wanted to see if the same is true for early ages, no significant development and social influence at this age, controlling of these influences  Differences mostly between west vs. East babies  Motor activity – more motor activity in Americans than in Chinese  Crying – more crying in Americans than Chinese  Fretting – more fretting in Americans than in Chinese  Vocalizing- more in Americans than in Chinese  Smiling – no significant difference - How does social development vary across historical eras? o Gradual Shifts  Family timing and structure  Modes of communication  Mothers working outside home o Significant events  War  Economic depression  Natural disaster  One snapshot is not enough; need to monitor social development across historical eras - Is social development related to other developmental domains?  Emotional development  Cognitive development  Language development  Motor development o These domains interact, we can’t consider just one of them o Reciprocal nature of cross-domain influence - How important are mothers for social development? o Are they the only key players? o What about fathers, siblings, grandparents? o What about teachers, coaches, religious leaders? o “It takes a village” - Is there a single pathway of social development? o Normative steps vs. Varied routes  Multifinality – the divergence of developmental paths in which 2 individuals start out similarly but end at very different points • Ex. Mariah Carey vs. her sister  Equifinality – the convergence of developmental paths in which children follow very different paths to reach the same developmental end point • Ex. joey and kate – they are similar at age 4, but their earlier life may have been very different (ex. genes) o There are many pathways to either successful or unsuccessful social developmental outcomes - What influences how we judge children’s social behaviour? o Three sets of factors  Characteristics of child  Characteristics of the adult  Characteristics of the context o Social judgments are important because they alter the way a child is treated - Theories of social development o Psychodynamic perspectives  Freud – structure of personality – Id (instinctual drives), Ego(rational component of personality, socially acceptable behaviours), Superego (personality component based on morals)  Erikson – psychosocial theory – extended the stages through adulthood, must resolve conflict at each stage before continuing to the next • In contrast to Freud, theory gave greater recognition to role of the social environment in development (or context) o Traditional Learning Theory Perspectives  Classical Conditioning – associations - Pavlov, Watson  Operant Conditioning – rewards and punishments - Skinner, Bijou, Baer o Cognitive Learning Perspectives  Bandura – Cognitive Social learning Theory • Importance of observational learning • Reintroduction of the person into the S R equations by focus on cognitive steps in learning through observations PSYCH 3JJ3- September 17, 2013 Perspectives - Biological - Life Span Chapter 3- Biological Foundations Aspects of biology that underlie social behaviour - Hormones - Brainwaves - Dna - Physical appearance - Reflexes and unconditioned responses Biological Foundations of Social interaction - Biological preparedness for social interaction – ex. infant and mother smiling at each other - Neurological foundation – ex. reflexes - Genetics - Differences in temperament – ex. joey and kate Biological Preparedness for Social Interaction – How are babies prepared? - From biological rhythms (ex. sleep-wake) to social rhythms o Acquisition of biological regulatory skills – interactional synchrony (ex. mother- child smile) o Development of biological rhythms that help babies deal with the time-based nature of social interaction  Being able to regulate sleep-wake, hunger, etc. - Visual preparation for social interactions o Babies attracted to visual social stimuli- faces, especially the eyes  Study - young infants spends time looking at features of face - Auditory preparedness for social interaction o Well developed before birth o Prefer high-pitch and exaggerated contours o Adults speak in shorter sentences – slowly – baby talk o Become attuned to native language by 9 months - Smell, taste, touch o Newborns can discriminate among different odors and tastes and prefer those that adults find pleasant o Prefer mother’s smell  Facilitates development of relationship o Sense of touch develops early  Touch has a soothing effect - Beyond faces and voices – primed to be a social partner o Infants prefer face to face play to other activities o Capable of regulations interactions with gaze  If too stimulations, infant turn away, cry or distract themselves  Still-face experiment – mother keeps straight face with infant and infant gets upset o Some infant-parents dyads have difficulty  Cocaine exposed infants, depressed mothers Study - “Does brain activity of children of parents with social phobia oscillate differently?” - Children of parents with social anxiety disorder, sometimes only one parent - Small study, limitations – not many children of SAD people, many of these parents can’t participate because of the illness, children tested in mid to late childhood – by this time the children are socialized - Looking at electrical signals- frequency and amplitude - Biological offspring of anxious parents are known to exhibit increased risk of psychopathology later in life, but do their brains oscillate differently? - Regional EEG collected in 6 biological offspring of socially phobic parents (M age = 10.67 years) and 10 children of healthy controlled parents o Relaxed wakefulness - Results o Topographics maps of scalp – reflect amount of energy o Children of socially phobic parents – more brain activity (more anterior, asymmetric, right side aka social side has larger activity) than children of healthy parents o Children of healthy parents – symmetric activity o There were no differences between the groups on parental ratings of shyness (but could be because of the mental state of the SAD parents) o Early predictors – children already show specific patterns of physiology that predict SAD in later life  This information can be used in a meaningful way – perhaps for intervention o 1) activity is localized in anterior portion, in the right side o 2) no behaviour differences at this point o 3) vulnerability factors, precursors for behavioural differences What do babies learn from face to face integrations? - Adults are responsive to them - They can control other people’s behaviour - They can alter the course of the interaction with emotional expression - Turn taking - Rules of social exchanges Evolutionary theory - why are babies prepared - Preparedness is adaptive and useful for ensuring the survival of the human infant and more generally, the species - Infants are biologically programmed for social interactions that ensure that their needs are met - Modern evolutionary theorists assume that development depends on being born into and reared in a species-typical environment that supports adaptive behaviours such as the ability to send, receive and understand social messages Neurological bases of social development - Cerebrum o The two connected hemispheres of the brain o Largest part of the human brain o Allows for attributes that make us human (ex. speech, self-awareness) - Cerebral cortex o The covering layer of the cerebrum, which contains the cells that control specific functions such as seeing, hearing, moving and thinking PSYCH 3JJ3 – September 19, 2013 - Two competing views – biological (predispositions, regulation of emotions) vs. Environment (attachment related) - This lecture – some slides posted Neurological Foundations Hemispheric lateralization – illustrative empirical examples from the laboratory - Historical precedent o Scientists and clinicians have long presumed the two cerebral hemispheres had different functions in the affective domain (1879 – John Hughlings Jackson) o Evidence from a variety of sources (brain injury, sodium amytal studies, brain imaging) suggested hemispheres differentially involved in emotion o Ex. Phineas Gage, he survived after the accident but his personality drastically changed - Theoretical platform – frontal asymmetry of emotion o Emotions are organized around approach-withdrawal motivational techniques o Left frontal cortex involved in approach-related emotions (ex. joy, happy, interest) o Right frontal cortex involved in withdrawal related emotions (fear, anger, disgust) o Pattern of restring frontal EEG activity may reflect basic approach-avoidance tendencies o Left frontal EEG asymmetry is approach o Right frontal EEG asymmetry is withdrawal o Pattern of asymmetry may reflect individual differences in affective style o Those who have more left activity tend to be more extroverted, happy, etc. o Those who have more activity on the right are more withdrawn o Over 100 empirical studies in support of this idea (see Coan & Allen, 2004 for a review) - EEG caps illustrating standard 10-20 system and dense array o Measure activity of the scalp o Dense array – used on adults - Measure o Alpha activity has been linked to a cortical idling rhythm – activity is 8-13Hz o 1920s- researcher used his son with EEG – gave his son problems (ie math)  Found that under times of stress (challenging problems) – there was more activity under this frequency band  This band is now known as the stress related band o Decrease in synchronous activity in the alpha band and adults is associated with activation o When populations of cortical neurons become activated, there is a decrease in amplitude o Alpha power is extracted from background EEG by subjecting the signal to Fourier analysis, which decomposes the complex waveform underlying frequency components o Power in any frequency band can then be quantified o With the advent of faster and more powerful computers, possible to measure more accurate EEG signals – can digitize and derive numbers – quantitative EEG o This info can be linked to behaviour o Regionally EEF power is continuously collected and typically aggregated over several minutes at rest o Compute right frontal EEG alpha (8 to 13 Hz) power MINUS left front alpha power o EEG power is inversely related to cortical activation, so negative EEG asymmetry scores reflect greater relative right frontal EEG activity  Positive scores indicate greater left activity - Research Questions o 1) Is the metric stable across time and context o 2) is the metric malleable?  Are the traits malleable, can we move them around o 3) does the metric have predictive utility? - Is the metric stable across time and context? o 4 studies o Inherent in the notion that resting frontal EEG activity is a reliable measure of affective style is the idea that it is stable across time and context o Studies have established test-retest reliability in infants, children and adults o Study 1) Short term (sec-by-sec) stability of frontal EEG activity in human infants predicts measures of temperament  Those who were stable right activity show more fear, less pleasure, higher resting heart rate o Study 2) Short-term stability (across 6 months) of frontal EEG asymmetry among adolescent females exposed to child maltreatment  Age 12-16  Pattern of asymmetry is stable  Reliable stability – if you were right-active in time 1, you were right-active in time 2  Control group showed greater left activity o Study 3) long-term stability (across 36 months) of frontal EEG asymmetry among stable outpatients with schizophrenia  Fair degree of stability – with both left and right activated people o So, stability demonstrated in infants, adolescents and adults o Study 4) Stability across context: frontal EEG asymmetry across different stages of sleep  EEG awake vs. EEG sleep , different stages of sleep tested  Stability found during all stages of sleep PSYCH 3JJ3 – September 24, 2013 Hemisphere lateralization - Has a genetic component o Parents and children have similar levels of language lateralization - Begins early in life but because not complete younger children have greater brain plasticity o I left hemisphere damaged in infant, child can still develop almost normal language ability - Even adults have plasticity The social Brain - These brain regions are involved in social functions that range from recognizing faces to bodily gestures to evaluating what other people are thinking or feeling, predicting what they are about to do and next, communicating with them - Regions include medial prefrontal cortex, etc (see textbook) How the social brain develops - All regions in the adult social brain show partial responses in infancy o Example: prefrontal regions are activated when babies process faces but mature response not seen until age 1 o Suggest that the brain is adapted to develop within a social context and that this context contributes to specializations in the adult cortex - Activation in the mPFC decreases in late childhood adolescence and is replaced by activation of specialized subregions of the mPFC in adults - In addition to becoming more specialized, the different cortical regions of the social brain become orchestrated into networks as development proceeds Genetics and social development - Gene – a portions of dna location at a particular site on a chromosome and coding for the production of a specific type of protein - Human behaviour genetics – the study of the relative influences of heredity and environment on individual differences in traits and abilities - Heritability factor- statistical estimate of the contribution heredity makes to a particular trait - Genotype- particular set of genes a person inherits from his or her parents - Phenotype- visible expression - Genetic transmission o Chromosomes located in the nucleus of each cell o Genes located on particular sites of the chromosome o Gene activated – copy of gene travels from cell nucleus to body of the cell where it serves as a template for building a protein molecules Genetics and Social Development: Methods of Studying Genetic contributions to development - Adoption studies o Compare adopted children to biological parents (genetic connection) and adoptive parents (environmental connection) - Twin studies o Compare similarities between identical twins (100% genes shared) and fraternal twins (50% genes) o Monozygotic – single zygote splits in half o Dizygotic – two different eggs o If monozygotic show more resemblance than fraternal  trait largely due to genes o If equal, assumed to be largely due to environment - Shared environment – set of conditions experienced by children raised in the same fam - Non shared – set of conditions or activities experienced by one child but not the other child of the same family - Identical twins may have more shared environments than fraternal - Fraternal may have more nonshared experiences than identical - Studying genetic contributions to development o Lessons learned from the human genome project  Have mapped and sequences about 20 thousand protein coding genes  Don’t know what all these do or how the contribute to human characteristics  Most social behaviours are influenced by many genes and genetic effects are much smaller than previously though  Genes never work in isolation but always in combination with the environment Models of genetic influence- Gene environment interaction (GXE) model o People in the same environment are affected differently depending on their genetic makeup  Example children who are genetically more emotionally vulnerable are likely to be affected by family stress more than children who are emotionally robust o Differential susceptibility models  Ex. Interaction between allele of 5HTT promoter region and social support in predicting behaviour inhibition and shyness at 84months  Ex. Evidence for a gene-gene interaction in predicting children’s behaviour problems • Candidate genes: 5HTT short(risk) vs long, DRD4 short vs long(risk) • Y axis – behavioural problem • Results o 5HTT short plus DRD4 long show greater behavioural issues o Long 5HTT plus long DRD4 – buffered effects of the long DRD4 – least amount of behavioural problems o Two less-risk factors does not mean least risk – an example of gene interactions, perhaps this is the average level of behavioural problems o Interesting outcomes from gene interactions, not very simple - Differential susceptibility to environmental influences model o Gaining in popularity to understand risk and resiliency outcomes in the field of developmental psychopathology o Observation that heightened biological sensitivity and reactivity factors do not always predict deleterious outcomes o Argued from an evolutionary framework o “selection pressures therefore tend to favor adaptive phenotypic plasticity, the capacity of a single genotype to support a range of phenotypes in response to particular ecological conditions that recurrently influenced fitness during a species’ evolutionary history” Ellis and Boyce  Having a “risk” allele doesn’t mean you will have problems – it is a function of the environmental context o Ex. orchid and dandelions  Orchids thrive in the right environment, overtake other species  In the wrong environment (dry) they perish  Dandelions aren’t affected by environment, but they remain average(neither thrive nor perish)  So “risk” alleles, like the orchid would have, may actually help in the right
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