Study Guides (238,122)
Canada (114,941)
Psychology (921)

3jj3 test 2 notes

25 Pages
Unlock Document

McMaster University
Louis A Schmidt

PSYCH 3JJ3 – October 15, 2013 - End of second video – the baby human o Alexis, 2.5 yrs old, finds hidden doll in the shrunken room o Pretend play – a very sophisticated skill o Symbolism o Study “pretend”  2.5 yr old girl  One experimenter pretends to eat raisins and looks at the girl  The other doesn’t make sound effects and doesn’t make eye contact  Girl chooses the second bowl where she thinks there are real reasons, she sees the other as symbolic - Emotions: Thoughts about feelings o Children express wide array of emotions from infancy o Emotional expression is first form of communication o Children communicate feelings, needs and desires by means of these expressions and thereby influence other people’s behaviours - What are emotions? o Subjective reaction to something in the environment o Generally, accompanied by some form of physiological arousal o Often communicated to other by some expression or action o Usually experienced as either pleasant or unpleasant o Also seen as calm or intent (a range) o Primary emotions – fear, joy, disgust, surprise, sadness and interest – which emerge early in life and do not require introspection and self reflection o Secondary or self-conscious emotions - pride, shame, guilt, jealousy, embarrassment, and empathy- which emerge in the second year of life and depend on a sense of self and the awareness of other people’s reactions  Ex. from video – parents point at child to try to elicit embarrassment, puzzle tasks and reaction of either success or failure, lipstick on nose and self-awareness is related to the ability to distinguish “me” from “not me” (the emergence of self awareness)  More varied by culture than primary emotions - Why are emotions important? o They are a way that children let other people know how they feel o They are a window into children’s likes and dislikes and communicate their general views of the world o They are linked to children’s social success o They are linked to children’s mental and physical health Perspectives on Emotional Development - Biological perspective o Emotional expressions are innate and universal , rooted in human evolution and based on anatomical structures o Facial expressions of basic emotions are the same in different cultures o All infants began to smile at 46 weeks post conception – regardless of how long they have been exposed to smiling faces o Each emotion is expressed by a distinct group of facial muscles o They left cerebral hemisphere controls the expression of the emotion of joy, the right hemisphere controls the expression of fear (Fox and Davidson, 1983)  Measurement of the extent to which emotions are present early in life  What are the biological and behaviour correlates associated  Monitored electrical activity in the brain and behaviour activity  Presented either a sucrose(sweet) or a citric acid (sour/bitter) solution to the tongue  Findings in 2-3 day olds • When sucrose presented, longer duration of interest than disgust (9.57 seconds vs. 0.438 seconds) • When citric acid presented, less interest than with sucrose and more disgust than with sucrose  Findings in 8 weeks • When sucrose presented, similar durations • When citric acid presented, similar durations • Other emotions now tested since infant is developed enough o Joy – more joy in response to sucrose than citric acid o Anger – more anger in response to citric acid than sucrose o Surprise – slight bias toward sucrose but not a lot o Blends (mix of emotions, ambiguous) – more blended emotions in response to citric acid  Findings of EEG- both ages, similar results • Pattern of left frontal asymmetry with sucrose solution – positive emotion, approach emotion • Pattern of right frontal asymmetry with citric solution – negative emotion, withdrawal emotion o Identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins in the age at which they first smile, the amount they smile, the onset of their fear reactions to strangers, and their general degree of emotional inhibition - Learning Perspective o Useful for explaining individual differences in emotional expression  When adults respond to a baby’s smiles with positive stimulation, the baby’s rate of smiling increases  Children may become classically conditioned to fear the doctor who gives a painful shot during their first office visit  Children may also acquire fear through operant conditioning- for example, when an adverse consequence, such as a painful fall, follows climbing up a high ladder  Children learn other fears simply by observing other people’s reactions - Functional Perspective o The purpose of emotions is to help people achieve their social and survival goals  Emotions impel children toward their goals o Emotional signals provide feedback that guides other people’s behaviour o Memories of past emotions shape how people respond to new situations Development of Emotions - Use coding systems to discern emotions expressions in infancy o Maximally discriminative facial movement (Max) o Looks at brows, eyes& nose & cheeks, mouth & lips & chin o Fairly reliable o Predictive in understanding outcomes - Emotional expressions and understanding in infancy and early childhood o <1 month – shows distress by crying o 1 month – generalized distress, may be irritable by late afternoon o 2 months- shows pleasure, mildly aroused by sight of joy, makes a social smile o 3 months – displays excitement and boredom, smiles broadly and often, cries when bored, may show wariness and frustration o 4 month – laughs, especially at certain sounds, cries less, gurgles with pleasure, shows beginnings of anger, begins to recognize positive emotions in others such as joy o 5 months -usually gleeful and pleased by sometimes frustrated, shows primitive resistant behaviours, turns head from disliked food, smiles at own image in mirror, wariness of strangers o 6 months- matches emotions to others, ex smiles and laughs when mother does, may show fear and anger PSYCH 3JJ3 – October 17, 2013 Development of emotions - From last time, see text and videos o 15 months – mood swings, clothing preference, crying is usually brief o 18 – restless and stubborn tantrums, sometimes shy, use of blanket or animal to soothe self, jealously of siblings o 21 – makes effort to control negative emotions o 2 year – responds to others moods, can be very intense o 2.5 years 0 shows shame, embarrassment, etc o 3 years – wide range of secondary emotions such as pride, shame, embarrassment, jealously, recognizes primary emotions such as happiness, sadness, fear and anger on the basis of facial expression o 4 years – shows increased understanding and use of emotional display rules o 5 years– understanding of external causes of emotions o 6 years– begins to understand two or more emotions can occur simultaneously o 7 years- understands the influence of beliefs on emotions o 9 years- understands that a person can have multiple, mixed and even contradictory and ambivalent emotions Two Studies from the Lab - Study 1: infant frontal EEG activity and heart rate in response to musical emotions in 9- month olds o Does the “coupling” of frontal EEG and autonomic measure during the processing of affective auditory stimuli provide a window into emotion regulatory and dysregulatory processes in infants?  If there is an integrative system, or a putative circuit, than underlie the brain and heart during emotion processing o 52 healthy, full-term 9month olds o Presented with 3 orchestral musical excerpts for 60 seconds o Emotions found from undergraduates: Intense unpleasant(fear) , intense unpleasant(joy), calm(sadness) o Limitation: fairly complex music pieces since they were rated by adults, they may be too complex for the infants o Recorded EEG from left and right mid-frontal parietal regions o Recorded heart rate from chest o Results :  No differences between different musical styles – they were combined into , music vs non music (baseline)  Faster heart rate in music condition  EEG – EEG asymmetry shifts from left(baseline) to right(with music) frontal activity • This is true for ALL music styles presented, no difference between them - Study 2: infant front EEG activity and heart rate in response to children’s musical emotions in 9 months olds o 51 healthy, full term 9 month olds o Presented with 3 children’s musical excerpts for 60 seconds (NOT adult music, rated by children)  Intense unpleasant (fear)  Intense pleasant (joy)  Calm (soothing) o Findings  EEG – measured absolute EEG power (lower scores reflect more activation) in left and right hemispheres • More left power in each style of music, therefore LESS LEFT activity with each style of music • Less right power therefore MORE RIGHT activity with the music • Not much discrimination between the emotions  Heart Rate- soothing vs fear vs joy • LOWER heart period therefore higher heart rate for the soothing music • Similar heart period/rates for fear and joy conditions, lower heart rates than soothing o Perhaps due to higher attention load, resulting in slower heart rate - Summary of Findings o Study 1: adult musical emotions  Greater relative right frontal EEG activity independent of valence (types of emotion)  High heart rate independent of valence o Study 2 : Children’s musical emotions  Greater relative right frontal EEG activity to all musical emotions relative to valence or intensity  Low heart rate only to intense musical emotions independent of valence - Conclusions o Right hemisphere bias to the processing of musical emotions at 9 months of age o Disassociation between central and autonomic measures during the processing of both intense positive and negative emotions at 9 months of age o Findings suggest that central and autonomic measures may have similar roles in affective valence but different roles in affective intensity Future research should consider how the pattern of “coupled” and “uncoupled” central and autonomic (brain and heart) activity may distinguish different disorders of emotion that are characterized by an inability to regulate different types and intensities of emotion (ex. depression vs. Anger) during development Oct 22- 3JJ3 - Social Development What is a Family? - A social unit in which adult spouses or partners and children share economic, social land emotional rights and responsibilities and a sense of commitment and identification - Family structure varies, but all families have similar functions o Earliest and most sustained source of social contact o Offer the most intense and enduring of all interpersonal bonds o Share memories of the past and experiences for the futures o Standard against which other relationships are judged - Family system o A group of people composed of interdependent members and subsystems; changes in the behaviour of one member of the family affect the functioning of other members - System for socialization o The process by which parents and others teach children the standards of behaviours, attitudes, skills and motives deemed appropriate for their society - Family members influences each other both directly and indirectly o Direct effects – spouses praising or criticizing each other, parents hugging or spanking children, children clinging or talking back to parents o Indirect effects – mother modifies the quantity and quality of father-child interaction which in turn affects the child’s behaviour - Well functioning family systems o Parents have a good relationship with each other, they are caring and supportive of their children, the children are cooperative and responsible and care for their parents - Dysfunctional family systems o Parents have an unhappy marriage, they are irritable with their children, the children exhibit antisocial behaviours, which intensifies problems in parents ‘ relationship - When the family system becomes dysfunctional, it is difficult to change negative patterns because systems, in general, resist change - The more adaptable the family can be, the better functioning the system will be - Study – skin conductance level reactivity moderates the association between harsh parenting and growth in child externalizing behaviour – Erath, Sheikh y o Method – skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting at age 8 and growth in child externalizing behaviour from 8 to 10 yrs  Parents provided reports of harsh parents and their children’s externalizing behaviour  Children also provided reports of harsh parenting  SCLR was assessed in response to a socio-emotional stress task and a problem solving task o Results  Analyses revealed that boys with higher harsh parenting in conjunction with lower SCLR exhibited relatively higher and stable levels of externalizing behaviour during late childhood  Boys with higher harsh parenting and higher SCLR exhibited relatively low to moderate levels of externalizing behaviour at age 8, but some results suggested that their externalizing behaviour increased over time, approaching the same levels as boys with higher harsh parenting and lower SCLR by age 10  For the most part, girls and boys with lower harsh parenting were given relatively low and stable ratings of externalizing behaviour throughout late childhood The Family System – The couple system - How does the couple’s relationship affect children? o When parents are mutually supportive, they are more involved with their children, their child-rearing practices are more competent, and their relationships with their children are more affectionate and responsive o In turn, children whose parents are mutually supportive and affectionate are well adjusted and positive o Parents who are in conflict and lash out at each other with hostility, belligerence and contempt inflict problems on their children  Infants may develop insecure attachment to parents, older children may become aggressive or depressed o Direct effects of parental conflict – research by Cummings et al  Children’s level of distress increased as the intensity and destructiveness of their parents fights increased  Intense and destructive conflicts between parents were related to child emotional insecurity, depression, anxiety, behaviour problems, relationship difficulties, and poor emotional regulation  Constructive conflict – showing respect for each other’s opinions, expressing mutual warmth and support, and modelling effective conflict negotiation strategies – lessened the harmful effects on children o Indirect effects of parental conflict  When marital difficulties affect parents’ child-rearing practices and they, in turn, affect children’s development  Parents in conflict marriages are likely to have parenting styles that are angry and intrusive, and their children, in turn, display a good deal of anger when they interact with their parents or with other children - How do we account for the effects of parental conflict on children’s social development o Social learning theory  Children learn how to interact with people and resolve conflicts by watching their parents o Attachment theory  Exposure to conflict leads to emotional arousal, distress and sense of emotional insecurity, which contributes to later problems in social interactions o Cognitive processes  The impact of parental conflict depends on how children understand the conflict o Poor parental mental health  Parental depression could mediate the impact of marital distress on adolescents’ depressive symptoms o Genetic explanation  Stronger link between marital conflict and adolescent conduct problems in families in which the mothers or fathers are identical twins vs. fraternal twins o Links between parental conflict and child adjustment are reciprocal and transactional, not a one way influence from parents to children  Marital discord predicts child behaviours, but child maladaptive behaviour also predicts marital discord - What can we do about the effects of parental conflict on their children’s social development o Intervention programs to better manage parental conflict are associated with fewer behaviour problems in children  Teaching couples about the effects of constructive and deconstructive marital conflict  Parents participating in a professionally lead group discussions on parenting or marital issues The Parent-Child System - How parents socialize children o Socialization becomes more deliberate as children achieve greater ability and begin to use language o Socialization efforts increase through preschool years o Socialization goals include having children behave politely, get along with others, value honesty and hard work, etc. – with variation across families and cultures o Parents use learning principles to teach their children social rules  Use reinforcement when they explain acceptable standards of behaviour and then praise or punish the children according to whether they conform to or violate these rules  Use modeling when they demonstrate behaviours they want the children to adopt - Differences in Socialization Approaches o Emotional involvement  Warm and loving vs. cold and rejecting o Level of control  Permissive and undemanding vs. demanding and restrictive o Physical punishment  Linked to a variety of negative outcomes, especially increases in children’s aggression  But it depends on the type of physical punishment- most negative outcomes occur when: • Physical punishment is the predominant disciplinary tactic • Punishment is severe, including shaking and spanking that is anger-driven and out of control - Parenting style o Combining the dimensions of control and emotion produces four different parenting styles  Authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, uninvolved o Baumrind’s Research  Energetic-friendly children – more socially competent in every way, were likely to have authoritative parents  Conflicted-irritable children – tended to be fearful and moody, were likely to have authoritarian parents  Impulsive-aggressive children – uncontrolled, noncompliant and aggressive behaviour were likely to have permissive parents o Uninvolved or disengaged parenting  Parents are indifferent to their children  They do whatever is necessary to minimize the costs of having children - giving them as little time and effort as possible  They focus on their own needs before those of the children  Children of these parents are likely to be impulsive, aggressive, noncompliant and moody PSYCH 3JJ3 – October 24, 2013 The Parent-Child System - Why pa
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 3JJ3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.