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Quick STUDY NOTES (Ch1-5) - Midterm 1; Oct 3 - PSYCH 3M03

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McMaster University
Aadil Merali Juma

MIDTERM 1 PSYCH 3M03 Quick-notes October 3, 2013 Chapter 1: History and Science  Animism – attribution of spirits to activity of people, animals, agents of nature  Misattributions to parts of body or organs, light/dark, up/down  Dualism – mind + body; integrate physiology and spiritualism; soul inhabiting body  Authority and Prophesy – authority figures often unquestioned  Scientific Method – objective, empirical, measurable, repeatable Chapter 2: Evolution I. Evolution of Motivation  Major dimensions of motivation – survival, reproduction, competition  Kin Selection – evolutionary process; genes replicate indirectly via expression that promotes replication of kin bearing copies of genes  Nepotism – favoring relatives over others; results from kin selection  Sexual Selection – trait frequency and saliency over generations is altered due to mate choices; often reflected in secondary sex characteristics and sexual dimorphism  Coefficient of Relatedness – degree of correlation to which genes are shared in relatives  Fitness – individual reproductive success as measured by number of offspring o Inclusive Fitness – direct fitness + summated contributions to reproduction of kin as weighted by relatedness  Inclusive Fitness Maximization – organisms tend to strive to bring genes into future generations by o Pre-reproductive self-preservation o Successful reproduction o Behaviour that helps kin with survival and reproduction  Genes that support survival, reproduction and kin solicitude leave copies of in future generations; genes that do not die out  Cultural Evolution – changes in behaviour that occur over and within generations without genetic change  Evolutionary Lag – demands of the environment (rapid cultural changes) outpace genetic change (slow) II. Evolution and Emotion  Emotions – predispositions to react to live events; elicited by social and other environmental events and experiences o Can motivate/re-motivate behaviour; can be communicative or subjective  Emotions better explained by natural selection than learning or culture (nature>nurture) o Culturally universal, stereotyped, seen early in development, involuntary, non-associated physiological basis  Methods of Studying Emotions – focus on external manifestations rather than subjective experience o Cross-species comparisons – animals can be bred to increase/decrease traits o Cross-cultural comparisons – facial expression recognition is consistent across cultures; not culturally determined o Expression in special populations – response to facial expressions of isolated population is consistent with other cultures o Expression in infancy and throughout development  Emotions evident in infancy (adaptive eg/ crying at birth to clear lungs, crying for attention)  Preverbal children – rich expression of contentment/discontentment  Toddlers – fear, rage easily seen o Physiological measures Chapter 3: Nature and Nurture Instinctive Behaviour  Reflexes – innate involuntary stimulus-response; can come in complex sets o Eg/ Human breathing, shivering, eye blink, hand withdrawal, startle response, knee jerk, salivation o Eg/ Babies rooting, sucking, Babinski reflex, Moro (startle) reflex, Palmar grasp, stepping  Fixed Action Patterns – complex coordinated patterns of instinctive behaviour o Eg/ Nest building(pregnant mouse never observed yet, grooming behaviour, swimming, rage response (cats), aggressi(male mouse raised with no male to observe; when placed with male, will show aggression) o Four properties 1. Stereotyped – similar across time and individual 2. Dependent on immediate external stimulation(can be) 3. Spontaneous (some) 4. Resist conditioning and individual learn(may)  Behavioural Genetics o Lab animals can breed for motivational and emotional traits o Some simple traits are single genes – eg/ squeaking in m(single domina, specific dances in mi(single recessive) o Most traits affected by multiple genes o Human Behavioural Genetics  Twin Comparisons – MZ (100%) and DZ (50%); assuming that environmental factors are the same for both, greater similarity in MZ than DZ may indicate genetic role in trait  Study of adoptees – if correlation with biological family is higher than with adopted family, may indicate genetic role o Genetics affect emotionality  Exp – bred mice over 7 generations for aggression; divergence occurs Learning  Environment can change fasterthan evolution; learning allows adaptation within individuals lifetime  Ability to learn can be driven by genetics 1 MIDTERM 1 PSYCH 3M03  Exploration – most animals explore new environments; food, water, shelter, possible danger must be sought out and evaluated  Play -  Simple Learning o Habituation – repeated exposure to a stimulus tends to lead to reduced responses to that stimulus o Sensitization – repeated exposure to a stimulus leads to enhanced responses to that steg/ in fear  Classical Conditioning – when neutral stimulus (CS) is repeatedly paired with a stimulus (US) that elicits a response (UR); neutral stimulus (CS) can come to elicit a response (CR) on its own o Eg/ Pavlov; food and salivation (dogs) o Eg/ Garcia’s Experiment – conditioned taste aversion; Radiation (US)  Sickness (UR); Taste (CR)  Sickness (CR) o Eg/ Little Albert – generalized fear; Noise (US)  Fear (UR); Rat/other stimuli (CS)  Fear (CR)  Instrumental/Operant Conditioning o Reinforcement – when a response is followed by a reward, the individual may tend to repeat the response o Intermittent Reinforcement – responses can be maintains even when only a subset are followed by reward o Extinction – if response is no longer reinforces, the response will eventually decrease in frequency until no longer occurs o Negative Reinforcement – when behaviour that terminates an aversive stimuli, behaviour will increase o Punishment – when aversive stimuli follows behaviour, incidence of behaviour decreases o Physiology of reinforcement – natural rewards are associated with increase in dopamine activity in the nucleus accumbens  Conditioning may not override FAPs o Eg/ Mice avoiding foot shock – can learn to run to other side of cage when light predicts shock (light behind); cannot learn when light is above the safe zone (cannot go toward light) o Eg/ Raccoon – place coin in piggy bank to receive food could not be conditioned; would rub coin  Complex Learning o Vicarious Learning – social learning and modeling  Contagion – inducement by social context  Imitation  Modeling o Incentives/Disincentives – cognitive representation of potential rewards and punishers that can motivate; does not require experience with rewards and punishers  Disincentive – knowledge that you will be punished if you behave a certain way Chapter 4: Physiology  Peripheral nervous System  Autonomic Nervous System  Sympathetic and Parasympathetic  Sympathetic Nervous System – fight/flight o Arousal and Energy  Increase heart and respiratory rate, blood pressure  Increase blood to muscles, lungs  Decrease of blood to digestive tract, skin  Inhibits digestion  Dilates pupils, piloerection, spontaneous urination and defecation o Catabolic processes – expending energy from stored reserves o Sympathetic Chain – column of nervous tissue parallel to the spinal cord; all motor fibers enter sympathetic chain ganglia o Located at thoracic and lumbar regions of spinal cord  Parasympathetic Nervous System – rest/digest o Restorative functions from excitement  Decrease heart and respiratory rate  Increase blood flow to digestive tracts  Promotes calming of nerves  Constriction of pupil, salivary gland secretion  Involved in sleep and sexual response o Anabolic processes – increase body’s storative energy o Branches from cranial and sacral areas of spinal cord Adrenal Glands  Adrenal Medulla o Secretes catecholamine’s (monoamine) in response to sympathetic NS directly into blood stream  Epinephrine, norepinephrine o Controlled by nerves – produced in synapse; release is rapid and occurs in conjunction with sympathetic NS firing o Rapid effecting  Adrenal Cortex o Secretes steroids in response to chemical stimulation  Aldosterone  Glucocorticoids (cortisol, corticosterone)  Sex steroids (progesterone, androgens, estrogens) o Controlled by peptides from pituitary (no innervation) o Takes place over longer duration of time (days, weeks, months) Hypothalamus  Primary drives (hunger, thirst, temperature regulation, reproduction)  Forebrain; surrounds 3 ventricle  Regulates (and is influenced by) pituitary and peripheral glands  controls chemicals of other systems 2 MIDTERM 1 PSYCH 3M03 o Controlling influences on i) autonomic NS ii) hormones from pituitary iii) bodily homeostasis iv) basic biological drives o Responsive to i) light ii) olfactory stimuli iii) steroids iv) neural information from viscera v) autonomic inputs vi) substances in blood (peptides etc) Pituitary Gland  Anterior Pituitary o Hypothalamus released small peptide hormones into fine blood capillary network  pituitary releases peptide hormones into general circulation  peripheral glands change function; secrete own hormones  Peripheral glands – adrenals, ovaries, testes, thyroid o Eg/ CRF release (hypothalamus)  ACTH release (pituitary)  cortisol release (adrenal gland)  ACTH release is dampened  Cortisol reaching hypothalamus and pituitary – causes decrease in ACTH release o Not directly innervated Limbic System  Important for emotional behaviour  Amygdala – balance of fear and rage; sexual inhibition; social behaviour (approach, avoid, aggression, fear, withdrawal)  Septum – reward process; contains nucleus accumbens  Hippocampus – spatial awareness, learning, memory  Mammillary Body Ventricular System  Contains cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) which acts as a cushion and allows for chemical communication  FAP’s elicited due to peptide interaction with ventricles th  4 Ventricle – pain Basic Chemical Forms 1. Steroids o Small, (typically) fat soluble, readily pass throughout system o Receptors in various peripheral sites and brain (predominantly limbic system) o From testes/ovaries – androgens (eg/ testosterone), estrogens (eg/ estradiol), progesterone o From adrenal cortex – aldosterone, progesterone, cortisol, corticosterone, androgens (eg/ DHEA, testosterone), estrogens 2. Peptides o Chains of amino acids (often long; large molecules), does not readily pass through system, water soluble, fragile, rapid acting o Hypothalamus – CRF/CRH (panic), GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone), NPY (neuropeptide Y) o Pituitary  Anterior – A
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