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EXAM STUDY NOTES (Ch11-14) - Final Exam; Dec 13 - PSYCH 3M03

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Aadil Merali Juma

EXAM NOTES PSYCH 3M03 Quicknotes December 13, 2013 Chapter 11: Love and Attachment  Harlow’s 3 Types of Attachment 1. Maternal-Infant a. Infants attachment to Caregiver 1) 0-3 months  Nursing – rooting, suckling  Proximity promoting – crying relieved by picking up, causes lactation; grasping reflexes  Crying, clinging, cooing, facial displays, touch, eye contact,  Pre-attachment – indiscriminate; baby does not yet know mother; behaviour is stereotyped reflexes; easiest time for adoption 2) 3-5 months  Progressive development of attachment in response to care, feeding, reduction of discomforts  Discriminates faces – smiles to familiar gases 3) 6-7+ months  Clear attachment to mother  Proximity seeking – clinging, moves nearer  Exploration – bases self around mother  Separation anxiety; fear of strangers 4) >12 months  Multiple attachments – father, older siblings, grandparents, sitters b. Maternal attachment to Infant  Lactation, nursing, hormones  Infanticide/abandonment occurs, prior to nursing  Skin to skin contact immediately after birth is associated with future positive attachment  Progressive meshing – mutual eye gaze, smiling, “baby-play act"  Hormones  Progesterone – drops pre-birth; MAO may be involved with affect  Oxytocin – in birth; stimulates milk ejection; hypothesized to play a role in bonding  Prolactin – promotes milk production; role in maternal behaviour (interacts with experience)  Cycling is suspended  Lab rat – behaviour and experience interacts with hormones  Experience – experienced mothers show maternal behaviour more readily, regardless of hormones  Hormones – maternal behaviour in virgin rats o Prolactin injected into brain promoted nurturance in virgin rats o Blood transfusion from parturient female induced maternal behaviour – blood borne signals act synergistically  Medial (~dorsal) POA – critically involved in maternal behaviour in rats ; POA interconnected with olfactory inputs, motor systems, monoamine systems (ventral tegmentum); lesions to area inhibit normal maternal behaviour o Occurs more in altritial mammals (born helpless, K-selected) than precotial mammals (born on feet) o Can occur with other kin  Paternal Bond – less reliable, more variable (even in bi-parental care species) due to paternal confidenceand risk of cuckoldry; contribution to care may be indirect; role of care may increase with age  Siblings, grand parents, aunts, uncles; common in humans; seen in other species (ions, wolves, orcas, hyenas) o Conserved across species – eg/ orphaned chimp and human infants when separated from mother have the same postures (self- rocking, clinging, hunched, injurious) o Blind babies have the same reactions o Not in all mammals – imprinting occurs in sheep and birds 2. Peer-Peer a. Siblings (r = 0.5) – rivalry, competition for resources, jealousy for maternal affection observed in very young, inter-sibling aggression (usually non- injurious); mutual support, playmates b. Peers  Develops with progressive independence from mother/family and social experience (similar in other social species)  Life-age and sex peers  Learning of communication; sharing information; skill acquisition in play  Alliances for mutual benefit 3. Heterosexual Sexual Attachment a. Passionate Love – romantic, less stable, more intense  Cognitive – preoccupation with other; idealization  Emotional – i) sexual attraction ii) polarization of affect (s= elation, euphorvs.failure= sadness, depression, anger, jeaiii) longing for reciprocity, desire for permanent union iv) physiological arousal (autonomic NS; hormonal events, high cortisol)  Behavioural – gaze, studying, trying to interpret and predict other, assisting other, seeking physical closeness, courting, flirting b. Companionate Love – less intense; more stable  Cognitive – i) intimacy, self disclosure ii) profound knowledge of other (strengths, weaknesses) iii) long-term expectations  Emotional – i) deep, caring trust, stability ii) daily emotions not as intense iii) vulnerability iv) betrayal leads to jealously, loneliness, anger and/or depression  Behavioural – gaze, physical proximity, sexuality, efficient non-verbal communication o Physiology  Oxytocin  Released at i) birth (uterine contractions) ii) mating; sexual climax (uterine contractions, allows sperm to enter uterus) iii) lactation (pair bonding; maternal-infant attachment)  Dynamics in basal forebrain/septum (along with vasopressin) – basal forebrain near nucleus accumbens septi related to reward and addiction  orgasm is satisfying, probably interacts with sexual bonding  Prairie Voles – mate and bond for life; bi-parental care  Oxytocin – oxytocin receptors in nucleus accumbens (septum) o Central oxytocin administration – leads to partner preference in absence of mating o Central administration of drug blocking oxytocin – does not influence mating, prevents partner preference 1 EXAM NOTES PSYCH 3M03  Corticosterone o Males – facilitate mate preference o Females – inhibits preference formation  fMRI studies – when viewing photos of romantic partners vs. friends  Anterior cingulate cortex activation  Posterior cingulate gyrus and amygdala deactivation  HPA activation – can induce feelings of attachment and bonding  Positive social behaviour reduce HPA; negative social relationships increase HPA – bonds formed through shared trauma  NE circuitry – some suggestion from drug actions; induce artificial states of euphoria and “love” o Sexual Jealousy  Jealousy – a love triangle; two individuals competing for attention of other; associated with fear of loss, distrust, anxiety, anger  Different from envy – recognition of someone else’s superiority in some domain; feelings of longing, inferiority, resentment, ill- will, guilt, denial concerning the emotion  Cognitive – shock, confusion, suspicions, obsessive thinking  Emotional – mix of primary and secondary emotions (anger, fear, despair, sadness, depression, anxiety, shame, embarrassment)  Behaviour – information seeking, withdrawal, revenge, aggression  Can lead to extreme emotions and behaviour – homicide, suicide, violent rage, depression  Affective displays (surprise, rage, fear)  Dimorphism  Males – sexual infidelity is greatest concern (cuckoldry is potential outcome)  Females – emotional infidelity is greatest concern (loss of support is potential outcome) Chapter 12: Motivation to Learn  Exploration of new environments – food, water, shelter, possible dangers must be sought out and evaluated; individual differen(high vs. low activity; exploration vs. defecatican be selected for (genetic component)  Play – inefficient behaviour without apparent immediate direct benefitor clear goals; critical in development o Many mammal species (primates, carnivores, marine mammals, ungulates and rodents); mostly K-selected; some incorporate tools o Adaptive Value  Cost – i) energy expenditure ii) riskof injury iii) possibly attracts predator attention  Benefits – i) strengthens muscles ii) potentiates social learning’s (competition, emotional expression) iii) multiple skill acquisition o Play behaviour (posturing, wrestling, chasing, avoidance) resembles adult adaptive behaviour – practice to deal with predators and conflict o Rhesus monkeys display a “play face” before engaging in aggressive rough and tumble play o Eg/ Rat play posture  Dorsal Contacts – posture; resembles adult sexual behaviour (mounting)  Pins – play fighting among peers; scratching and biting does not occur o Reduce play (not eliminate) by:  Lesioning ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), hippocampus, amygdala, cerebellum, lateral hypothalamus  Removal of neocortex  Simple Learning o Habituation – repeated exposure to a stimulus tends to lead to reduced responses to that stimulus o Sensitization – repeated exposure to a stimulus leads to enhanced responses to that stimulueg/ in fear  Classical Conditioning – when neutral stimulus (CS) is repeatedly paired with a stimulus (US) that elicits a response (UR); neutral stimulus (CS) can come to elicit a response (CR) on its own  Instrumental/Operant Conditioning o Reinforcement – when a response is followed by a reward, the individual may tend to repeat the response o Intermittent Reinforcement – responses can be maintains even when only a subset are followed by reward o Extinction – if response is no longer reinforces, the response will eventually decrease in frequency until no longer occurs o Negative Reinforcement – when behaviour that terminates an aversive stimuli, behaviour will increase o Punishment – when aversive stimuli follows behaviour, incidence of behaviour decreases  Enhance effectiveness of punishment  Include immediate application of punishment after undesired response  Introduce contingent punishment at maximum intensity (rather than gradually increasing)  Punish each occurrence  Concurrent removal of the positive motivation for positive response  Provide alternative means of obtaining rewards trying to obtain with undesired behaviour  Reinforcement of responses that are incompatible with punished response  Verbal description of punishment contingency o Physiology of reinforcement – natural rewards are associated with increase in dopamine activity in the nucleus accumbens o Electrical Brain Stimulation (EBS) – electrodes implanted in brain core  Rats prefer regions of the cage where electrodes deliver mild pulses to the brain –  Animals work for brief pulses of electricity – press bar for EBS, rate of pressing increases (higher than for food reward)  Rapid extinction  Can exclude or stimulate feeding, drinking  Demonstrated in all species examined (cats, monkeys, humans)  Physiology – highest rates in lateral hypothalamus; region traverses by MFB (collection of axons that interconnect areas in the central base of the brain; ascending catecholaminergic and serotonergic axons)  Various sites at work (some interact with food and water deprivation)  Local interference with dopaminergic systems disrupt electrical brain reward o Anti-dopaminergic drugs block reinforcement o Ventral tegmentum (midbrain)  MFB  nucleus accumbens (septum)  intervene at nucleus accumbens  Catecholaminergic stimulants (amphetamine, cocaine) enhance responses  Attempts to control behaviour using electrical impulses applied to various areas; humans (clinical cases) with implanted electrodes generally report pleasure from EBS to various limbic sites o Physiology of Reinforcement  Consummatory behaviour (eating, drinking, sex) and EBS in MFB – associated with increases dopamine activity in nucleus accumbens septi (oxytocin receptors clusteredin area; implicated in bonding, relating to reward) o
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