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Final

PSYCH 1X03 Final: COMBINED PSYCH 1X03 NOTES.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim

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Levels of Analysis: Unit 1
Developmental Perspective:
How behaviors develop over a lifespan
Challenges when studying groups of ppl (babies, children,
special needs children).
Behaviorist Perspective:
Watson & Skinner:
Mind = black box (should not be looked into)
Visible behavior = only valid measure of psychology.
Role of environment = strong influence on behavior.
Cognitive Perspective:
Internal processes (thoughts, learning, attention)
Models = abstract representation of how mind function.
o They simplify complex processes.
Biological Perspective:
Reductionism: all behavior = biology of brain
Branches / Extensions: cognitive and behavioral
neuroscience.
Neuroimaging tools = used to examine brain (MRI- structure
focused, functional MRI change in chemistry focused. )
Evolutionary Perspective:
Looks @ influence of environmental / genetic factors on
behaviors
Looks across many generations of species.
Socio-Cultural Perspective:
Looks @ factors that influence the behavior of individual &
group
How is one’s behavior influence from the group they’re in?
UNIT 2: RESEARCH METHODS
Scientific Method:
How to collect and analyze information
Theory: not specific (ex: energy drinks improve memory)
Hypothesis: specific what your trying to find out (students
who take energy drinks should show improved test
performances)
Research Method: how hypothesis is tested
Collect Date: taking outcomes of test
Analyze Data: understand date, trends, relationships.
Report Findings: publish in scholarly journals
Revise Theories: include new info into understanding apply
to world.
Reliability: same output with same input (step on scale many
times in a day input = produces # output not cupcakes)
Construct Validity: ability to test something it’s suppose to
test (not if: step on scale to measure IQ).
Ways To Collect Data:
Case Study:
Single Detailed examination of a particular person
Provides initial facts, doesn’t manipulate (take results given to
us)
Problems: not able to compare to others (or general
population), subjective (looking for certain support).
Correlational Studies (direct observation):
Look @ existing relationships btw pairs of variables (ex: diet
and life expectancy)
No manipulation.
Positive, negative, zero correlations measures one variable
to predict another
Correlation coefficient (1 / -1)
Problems: Cant tell cause & effect, third party variables,
difficult to explain rational of observed behaviors, subjective
interpretation.
Experiments:
Researcher makes something happen (manipulates variables)
Binary Variables: only 2 possibilities (On/off). One option =
constant
Compound Variables: variables not measured yet still could
have an effect (gender, time of day).
Problems: artificial setting (lab) & results may not translate to
real world setting, ethic / moral constraints.
Interview:
Adv: one-one-one, behavior info which may not be able to
observe
Problems: level of comfort, un/intentional dishonesty,
memory lapse.
Questionnaire:
Adv: info on behavior which may be difficult to observe,
simple to collect from large numbers, self-report observation
(directed by self)
Problems: cant asses truthfulness, wishful thinking, memory
lapses.
Conducting Experiment:
Hypothesis: using anecdotal evidence (evidence gathered
from others / self experience).
Experiment: tool used to measure variable
o Independent Variable: manipulated by scientist
o Dependent Variable: observed as outcome (changes as
one manipulates)
Control Groups:
Experiment / control groups
Within-subject design: same subject manipulating
independent variable (have / haven’t taken drink)
o Subject to practice effect: improved performance over
time in experiment.
Between Subject Design: 2 groups (1 control) more
subjects (similar ppl btw groups not all same type of
people)
Sampling:
General group = population
Group to test = sample.
Random sample: choose ppl at random (potential bias
towards specific group)
Random Assortment: assigned ppl randomly to control /
experiment group (eliminates any bias btw groups)
Conducting an Experiment:
Subject Biases:
Placebo affect: person reacts to treatment that has no effects.
Blinding: ppl don’t know if belong to control / experiment
group
Experimenter Bias: experimenter actions promote the result
they wish to achieve.
Double Blind: experimenter / participants don’t know which
group they belong to.
Scientific Research:

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Description
Levels of Analysis: Unit 1 Developmental Perspective:  How behaviors develop over a lifespan  Challenges when studying groups of ppl (babies, children, special needs children). Behaviorist Perspective:  Watson & Skinner:  Mind = black box (should not be looked into)  Visible behavior = only valid measure of psychology.  Role of environment = strong influence on behavior. Cognitive Perspective:  Internal processes (thoughts, learning, attention)  Models = abstract representation of how mind function. o They simplify complex processes. Biological Perspective:  Reductionism: all behavior = biology of brain  Branches / Extensions: cognitive and behavioral neuroscience.  Neuroimaging tools = used to examine brain (MRI- structure focused, functional MRI – change in chemistry focused. ) Evolutionary Perspective:  Looks @ influence of environmental / genetic factors on behaviors  Looks across many generations of species. Socio-Cultural Perspective:  Looks @ factors that influence the behavior of individual & group How is one’s behavior influence from the group they’re in? UNIT 2: RESEARCH METHODS Scientific Method:  How to collect and analyze information  Theory: not specific (ex: energy drinks improve memory)  Hypothesis: specific – what your trying to find out (students who take energy drinks should show improved test performances)  Research Method: how hypothesis is tested  Collect Date: taking outcomes of test  Analyze Data: understand date, trends, relationships.  Report Findings: publish in scholarly journals  Revise Theories: include new info into understanding – apply to world.  Reliability: same output with same input (step on scale many times in a day – input = produces # output – not cupcakes)  Construct Validity: ability to test something it’s suppose to test (not if: step on scale to measure IQ). Ways To Collect Data: Case Study:  Single Detailed examination of a particular person  Provides initial facts, doesn’t manipulate (take results given to us)  Problems: not able to compare to others (or general population), subjective (looking for certain support). Correlational Studies (direct observation):  Look @ existing relationships btw pairs of variables (ex: diet and life expectancy)  No manipulation.  Positive, negative, zero correlations – measures one variable to predict another  Correlation coefficient (1 / -1)  Problems: Cant tell cause & effect, third party variables, difficult to explain rational of observed behaviors, subjective interpretation. Experiments:  Researcher makes something happen (manipulates variables)  Binary Variables: only 2 possibilities (On/off). One option = constant  Compound Variables: variables not measured yet still could have an effect (gender, time of day).  Problems: artificial setting (lab) & results may not translate to real world setting, ethic / moral constraints. Interview:  Adv: one-one-one, behavior info which may not be able to observe  Problems: level of comfort, un/intentional dishonesty, memory lapse. Questionnaire:  Adv: info on behavior which may be difficult to observe, simple to collect from large numbers, self-report observation (directed by self)  Problems: cant asses truthfulness, wishful thinking, memory lapses. Conducting Experiment:  Hypothesis: using anecdotal evidence (evidence gathered from others / self experience).  Experiment: tool used to measure variable o Independent Variable: manipulated by scientist o Dependent Variable: observed as outcome (changes as one manipulates) Control Groups:  Experiment / control groups  Within-subject design: same subject manipulating independent variable (have / haven’t taken drink) o Subject to practice effect: improved performance over time in experiment.  Between Subject Design: 2 groups (1 control) – more subjects (similar ppl btw groups – not all same type of people) Sampling:  General group = population  Group to test = sample.  Random sample: choose ppl at random (potential bias towards specific group)  Random Assortment: assigned ppl randomly to control / experiment group (eliminates any bias btw groups) Conducting an Experiment: Subject Biases:  Placebo affect: person reacts to treatment that has no effects.  Blinding: ppl don’t know if belong to control / experiment group  Experimenter Bias: experimenter actions promote the result they wish to achieve.  Double Blind: experimenter / participants don’t know which group they belong to. Scientific Research:  Descriptive stats: present info about data at a glance – to give overall results (mean, median mode)  Inferential stats:  Histogram: # times values appear in sets  Frequency Distribution: distribution of frequent values  Measures of Central Tendency: o Mean (very susceptible to outliers) o Median (not affected by outliers)  Standard Deviation: measure of data points from the mean o Small base = small standard deviation o Large base = large standard deviation (higher chance or variability / to occur by chance) Inferential Statistics:  Stats which allow us to make assumptions about the data. Hypothesis Testing:  If hypothesis is correct – data collected from both groups = drawn from 2 diff distributions  T-Test (probability of chance): considers each data point to see probability of getting it by chance  P-Value (result of T-Test): if difference is large enough = more likely by chance o <0.05 = statistically significant (difference caused from true difference in group and not by random chance) Observational Research:  Hypothesis tested by: strength / direction of relationship btw 2 variables  Observational research without manipulations: cancer diff btw smokers / non smokers (didn’t alter anything) Correlation:  Measures strength of 2 variables  Stronger when closer to 1 (positive correlation) or -1 (negative correlation) o r = 0  no correlation  Correlation doesn’t equal causation o Ice cream doesn’t cause allergies  Construct: describing a concept in a general way – hard to measure in practice  Operational Definition: exact definition of vague term / idea (can be objectively measured)  Levels of Analysis Approach: diff perspectives that give info about diff aspects of a research question o Diff questions about same subject  diff answers o Multiple levels of answers = best well-rounded answer  Paradigm: set of assumptions about the kind of research questions that can be asked (not one correct paradigm) Inductive Reasoning:  Specific observation (facts)  general theory (allows us to described the observations)  Ex: cats & dogs are warm blooded. Therefore all 4 legged animals are warm blooded (b/c animals had 4 legs were warm blooded) Deductive Reasoning:  General theories  specific ideas  Test theories by making specific predictions that haven’t been observed directly  Ex: all 4 legged animals are warm blooded  therefore: elephants must be warm blooded.  Supports theory – but not proven theory (hasn’t accounted for all 4 legged animals) CLASSICAL CONDITIONING: UNIT 3 Classical Conditioning:  Associates 2 events, conditional upon training  UR – biologically determined reflex (to US) – no prior learning  CR – response only after learning – effect of CS.  CS—US linked if both happen together CS: Conditional Stimulus US: Unconditional Stimulus Paired with US to produce learned the action: naturally triggered Contingency (previous neutral action response without past learning. - smell of perfume years later - actual person / date with girl CR: Conditional Response UR: Unconditional Response Response once contingency btw natural response triggered by US CS&US are made no training = arousal = arousal Acquisition:  Process which CS & US are learned – happens in very early trials Short-Delay Conditioning:  CS then US (little time between) o Will reach an asymptote CR fastest  Interval too large = less effective  No interval= less effective (no anticipation?)  Ex: placing curved road signs: too late/right before = useless. too far ahead = might forget Extinction: Lasting Effects:  As long as CS continues to be reliable cue for US = contingency remains Extinction:  Loss of CR when CS no long predicts US.  Repeating CS w/out US many time  CR disappears, Techniques:  Either by being erased (less effective)  Extinction through new learning: learning that CS will no long predict US . Spontaneous Recovery:  Extinction: makes new learned response (CS without US – UR fades)  Rest period: CS still elicits a CR o CS not unlearned, just new contingency learned for same CS. o Reacquisition faster than original conditioning Renewal:  response extinguished in diff environment than acquired (rehab).  CR same as environment where actual CR took place. Generalization & Discrimination: Stimulation Gradient:  CS paired with US to create contingency o Stimuli similar to CS will also produce CR. o Whistle to warn about bombs – creates fear response (whistle of similar htz will produce same fear) Generalization Gradient: Person shocked for a specific tone  cerates response of expectation of being shocked  Presents various tones  Tones most similar to original will produce greatest response o Less and less fear the greater difference in tones Bit by a dog:  Dogs most similar to kind that bit you will produce greatest amount of fear. Meaning:  Allows verity of CS’s to emit same CR – to some degree Generalization & Extinction: Tested tones without shocking  Largest loss in CR response: highest CS (original tone of shock) – know that tone is the one to specifically shock you – reaction goes down when realize it wont. Discrimination Training:  Restricting range that a CS emits a CR  Ex: fear of poodles – shown images of other breeds – CR for the specific CS will also go down BUT NOT ORIGINAL  Ex: fearing 500hz shock: eliminate fear of 600hz (tone without shock)  CR for 600hz will diminish (others remain the same) CS+ / CS-  CS+ (500hz)  US (shock)  UR (fear) o Predicts presence of US (shock)  CS- (600hz)  US (nothing)  UR (nothing) o Predicts absence of US (no shock) o Creates absences in generalization gradient. Phobias & Therapies:  Phobias can result from parents fear: o CS: snake US (parents fear) CR: fear UR: fear Extinction method:  Present CS w/out US  CR fading  Problem: ppl wont want to expose self to CS Implosive Treatment:  Confront with fear (CS – snakes) without US (biting)  = LARGE INITIAL EXPOSURE  Problems: potentially traumatic, ppl have to do willingly. Systematic Desensitization:  Gradual exposure of CS – start at far end of gradient and work way to strongest over time.  (stuffed snakes, pictures, garden snakes, bigger snakes, anaconda)  Problems: ppl have to do it willing to deal with anxiety Others:  Antabuse (drug making u feel sick if intake alcohol)  sickness associated with alcohol (and will avoid it)  Problems: avoidance (not taking meds wont lead to sickness) Homeostasis and Compensatory Responses: Homeostasis:  balance of internal mechanisms Compensatory Responses:  Processes which counteract something – creating balanced homeostasis.  Ex: too much sugar: body produces insulin to regulate it Role of Conditioning:  Sugar example:  CS: intake of sugar US: increase blood sugar = insulin release CR: same flavor cues  CR of insulin release UR: ― ―  Diet soda: expected sweet taste (CS) – contingency btw same taste and + sugar (US)  body releases insulin (CR / UR) o Lower blood sugar  hunger = eat more = gain weight Addictions:  CS: environment that normally take drugs US: drug effect CR: body counter adaptation (body must maintain homeostasis – effects to counteract drug effect) – feeling low  After many times: environment cues - auto-trigger body’s counteractions to drugs (preparing for the possible intake) Withdrawal & Environment Specificity:  Over exposure: drug effects decrease (tolerance) o Happens in usual drug environment  Each drug intake: CR grows in strength  Withdrawal syndrome: body produces opposite effect to counter drug effects – taking drugs will counter-act CR and return body to homeostasis.  Meaning: drug rehab centers: not exposing ppl to cues paired with drugs (home environment) Extinction of diff environment  Possibility of death: built up tolerance in specific environment (keep taking larger amounts). Take larger amount in diff environment – body not use to it (not ready with counter responses – NO CR)  overdose. INSTDUMENTAL CONDITIONING: UNIT 4 Instrumental Conditioning:  Learned contingency btw behaviors and consequences Thorndike: cat in box, able to see food – has to pull rope to open  Predicted: after first accidental escape – would do it immediately.  Actually: gradually decreased over time (random behavior that led to nothing – went down) o Leading to only correct target behavior (pulling string) o No ―aha‖ moment  Operant Conditioning: behaviors that cause the consequences – voluntary behavior operate based on environment to produce change  Reinforcers: primary (intrinsic: food water, mate) o Secondary (learned through previous learning: pieces of paper / metal  learned value assoc. w/ primary reinforcers) Law of Effect: Positive & negative reinforces  Reinforcers: stimuli presented with a response  change in rate of response  Stamped out: random behavior  Stamped in: correct escape behavior  Followed by: satisfying effect (likely to occur again – good food) o Unsatisfying effect (not likely – rotten food) Types of Instrumental Conditioning: Reward Training: presentation of positive reinforcer (PP)  Give treats when behavior is done (reward for actions) Punishment: presentation of Negative reinforcer (PN).  Decreased behavior – punishment after behavior  Skinner: authority figure who inflicts punishment = becomes signal of pain (classical conditioning)  fear of person (damage relationships) Omission Training: removal of positive reinforcer (RP).  Take away privileges (timeouts)  Remove tv, no access to toys (removal or a something pleasurable) Escape Training: removal of negative reinforce (RN).  Wanting something negative removed  Loud music - want removed so bang on the walls.  Rat pressing on button to escape getting shocked  Best when: consequences immediately follow response Acquisition & Shaping: Graphing Responses:  Shows when rewarded behavior occurs / rate of responding over time  Rise then plateau (when reinforcement is given) Auto-shaping:  Small simple task learned by self  Pigeon pecks button to get food. Shaping:  Complex behavior broken down to smaller steps, gradually built up to full response hope to be conditioned  Each separate response through reward training  Skinners ping pong pigeon / water skiing squirrel. Generalization and Discrimination:  SD  response  reinforcement (discriminative stimulus – contingency is ―on‖ / relevant)  S delta  response  no reinforcement (when contingency is not valid / doesn’t apply / ―off‖) Generalization of SD: red key  Red key = highest response. Other lights closer (green, orange that look the same will potentially produce similar responses)  Ex: child’s politeness: SD = presence of adult  response (politeness)  reinforcement (praise) o May not be as strong without SD around. Extinction: polite kid  Parents don’t give reward for being polite (every time)  stop being polite Discrimination:  Only polite to those who reward him & isn’t polite to those who don’t. Difference btw CS & SD:  CS: reflex / automatic response  SD: sets condition for response (voluntary) Schedules for Reinforcement: Continuous Reinforcement (CRF): after every correct behavior Partial (PRF): only some responses – more resistance to extinction. Ratio schedules: based on # responses  Fixed Ratio (FR): reinforcement after set # times – FR1 = after each. (pause after each reinforcement) – stairs graph (high increase, level off)  Variable Ratio (VR): set avg of # times (diff each time). High rates of responding (don’t know when reward – always have to be ready) Variable Schedules: based on # times since last reinforcement  Fixed Interval (VR): first correct response after fixed amount of time (consequence after 4 weeks – exam) OH SHIT study / scallop graph – peak at end. Variable Interval (VI): first correct response after diff amounts of time – random quizzes @ diff times (steady rate) LANGUAGE: UNIT 5 Sets Language Apart from Other Communication  Regular: rules and grammar – able to be reorganized  Arbitrary: sound doesn’t describe the word (cat doesn’t describe what word is)  Productive: no limit to combining words to describe anything – limit to sounds and combos of words  Symbolic: diff words mean diff things in diff cultures (culturally defined)  Rule governed: each combo has rules which make language make sense Whorf-Sapir Hypothesis:  Language influences our thoughts & the way we perceive the world  We think to self in native language.  Evidence: cultures only have words for 1, 2 many (many could be 3-99 which couldn’t be understood) – lacks words to distinguish.  Counter evidence: one word for older male relative – but can distinguish between them all (uncle, grandfather) o Some have one word for each relative (Korean) Structure of Language: Morphemes: smallest unit which can convey information  (table)(cloth) = 2  (table)(s) = 2 (s gives indication of multiple) Phonemes:  Breaking down of morphemes  /d/o/g/ /ch/ai/r  k/v/t – many other languages but not English Syntax:  Rules that control how sentences are put together (grammer)  Ex: French = gender of each word Semantics:  Meaning of each words  Could have perfect syntax but not sematic meaning. Language Development: Timeline:  12 weeks – cooing 12weeks C  16 weeks – acknowledge noises (turns head) 16weeks A  6 months – imitate sounds 6mths I  1 year – babble 1year B  2.5 years – vocab >850 2.5yrs 850  1.5 – 6 years = vocab rapid increase Language Comprehension: Segmentation Problem:  Person speaking new language sounds very fast – not able to break down speech into word units.  Children who have good speech segmentation (able to pick out repeated / familiar sounds) = higher vocab.  Implications: potential for infant screening test to predict later language problems (possible early treatment) Infant Directed Speech:  Mothers use higher pitch / exaggerated pitch changes – helps to segment child’s speech Universal Phonetic Sensitivity: Phonemes Sensitivity:  Phonemes in other languages adults cannot distinguish, children can  Universal Phoneme sensitivity: can distinguish btw all sounds Werker’s head turn:  Child’s head turn to discriminate new sound from others  Children = as good with foreign phonemes as ppl from that culture. o Cant distinguish non-native sounds  Meaning: easier for child to learn new language when young / recognize new phonemes. Accents: foreign accent syndrome:  Person develops a foreign accent (brain damage / stroke)  Broca’s area (speech production)  Cerebellum (motor coordination – ability to pronounce phonemes) Theories of Language Development: Social Learning Theory:  Imitation: mom says word – so child says back  Operant: reinforcement – parent gets excited when child says word  Evidence for: Geenie: without explicit exposure to language - it will not develop properly.  Evidence Against: too rapid / complex to by imitation / reward. o Once learned: words are combined into models not heard before / errors not heard in adult speech Early Language:  Overextension: applies rule too broadly – to many things that are similar o Doggy – all 4 legged creatures = doggy  Under extension: apply to only specific object o Dog = only one specific stuffed dog of hers  Telagraphic Speech phase: short sentences containing most of the information (where teddy?)  Over regularizations: using grammatical rule too broadly (runned – ran) Innate Mechanism Theory:  All born with mechanism which allows to learn language  All languages follow fundamental underlying concepts  Chomsky’s LAD: language acquisition device o All languages follow certain rules o b/c innate mechanism: allow to understand / use universal rules  Psychological Response: predisposition to exposure self to sounds / language in the brain.  support: Spontaneous signing by those who haven’t learned it previously.  Critics: monkeys show specific neuro-responses to some aspects of language – not all. Interactionist Theory:  Combined nurture / nature  Acquire by: testing, evaluating about rules of language.  Influences: maturation of brain, social interaction, cognitive preparedness. PROBLEM SOLVING / CATEGORIZATION: UNIT 6 Problem Solving: Deductive / Inductive Reasoning:  Deductive: idea (it will rain)  conclusion (ground will be wet)  Inductive: info (ground is wet)  general idea (must have rained)  Arch of knowledge: general theory + deductive reasoning  facts o Facts + inductive reasoning  theories (general ways of thinking) Insight Problems:  Functional Fixedness: difficult to see alternative uses for common objects (candle & bulletin board) Intelligence Testing: Qualities of a Test:  Reliability: measures ability to produce consistent results.  Validity: measures what researchers claims to be measuring.  Stanford –Binet intelligence test: diff amount of reasoning for diff versions of age group Charles Spearman & G:  One generalized intelligence behind all others (does well on one test, will do well on all others) Multiple Intelligence:  Gardner’s 8 Intelligence: each type independent from others  Critics: that they were interrelated: person did well on one would do well on most others as well. Human Intelligence: Weschler Scale:  WAIS: Weschler’s Adult Intelligence Scale  WISC: Wschler’s Intelligence Scare for Children.  IQ – standardized test comparing results to large sample. Genetic & Environment:  Identical twins = higher correlation of intelligence vs. fraternal  Mean scale for IQ test steadily increasing (raw score = rising) = Flynn effect Piaget & Intelligence Test: Piaget:  Active learning: incorporating new info from environment with known info  Schema: mental framework of interpreting the world (frown = unhappy)  Assimilation: incorporating new info into existing world  Accommodation: modifying existing schemas to allow new info 4 Stages of Development: (S) Sensorimotor stage (birth – 2 years): effect change on environment, act with intention.  Complete stage when: objects continue to exist when not in sight (P) Preoperational Stage (2-7):  Egocentrism (only understands own perspective – 3 mountain task).  Seriation: complete when able to place objects in order of magnitude (not able to place sticks in order of length)  Reversible relationships: ―I have brother, brother doesn’t have sister‖  Conservation: cylinders of milk (ABLE TO DO WITH PASSING STAGE) (C) Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 yrs)  Ability to think in abstract terms (F) Formal Operational stage (11+)  fantasy realities. Limitations: some kids develop out of order, relies on understanding language / what is being asked. Biases and Heuristics: Conformation Bias:  Seeking out info to support hypothesis o Dr diagnostic, failing to look for disconfirming evidence Availability Heuristic:  Make decision based on info most easily available. o Person with British accent must come from UK o Professor / farming Representativeness Heuristic:  Info based on average in mind / larger category  Assumes something should match random pattern Categorization:  Helps decide best course of action for each situation Functions of Categorization:  Classification: treat objects that appear diff = belonging together  Understanding: understand a situation – 2 ppl arguing.  Predicting: categorizing current experiences with similar past experiences  predict whats gonna happen  Communication: words refer to category (furniture to describe many things) Illusions of the Expert:  Things we are good at seem easy Rules:  Able to understand abstract concepts – but not able to describe them  Difficult to include / exclude items from membership  Easy to decide whether item belongs though Prototype Theory: Prototype:  Avg / best member of category (compare everything else to internal rep. of category = prototype)  Ex: apple (fruit), robin (bird).  Formed through experience  Categorize new objects by comparing to prototype – takes more time to process less typical members (penguin is a bird? Vs. robin)  Problems: large variability, prototype may change over time Exemplar Theory:  Search through all examples (lifetime) to compare to current object  Ex: this animals looks like one other dog in memory – must be a dog  Support: more effected by most recent experience o Dr. & skin condition Comparing: Inclusion of a single exemplar 2 weeks later:  Prototype theory: doesn’t matter in a single case – blended in to avg stereotype o explains categorization of simple objects / situations  Exemplar: any increase to # examples = improve categorization  Children are able to change the nature of machines (toasters into teapot)  Basic categorization systems = exist in animals ATTENTION & MEMORY: UNIT 7 Attention: Selection:  Automatic selection: attention auto drawn to something (flashing light)  Conscious selection: attention relevant to our goals  Problems of selection: filtering out irrelevant info (background) Automatic & Controlled Attention:  Automatic processes: involuntary processes (captures attention quickly) o Salient info: pops out / hard to miss (sirens)  Controlled Processes: voluntary – objects of interest. Operate more slowly. o Ex: driving car: o Difficult to attend to many things (all demanding for attention) Spotlight Model: Selection & Spotlight: Posners Model:  Only focus on one part of environment at one time.  Effects: respond faster / greater accuracy Spatial Cueing Paradigm:  Focus on middle screen – automatic light draws attention to one side – even when asked to look @ other side  Meaning: target destination is faster with subtle (unnoticed) cue o Favors automatic response o Amplifies attention Controlled Processing:  Attention is faster than the eye Filter Models: Filters and Attention:  Spotlight – spotting a single flow in the grass  Filter = ignoring surrounding objects Broadbent’s Filter Model:  Attention filter selects important info and tunes out other  Experiment: message in 2 ears – have to concentrate / recall only one (shadowing the other)  Wrights shock experiment: ppl able to recall info heard in the unattended ear.  Limits: remember unattended info o Crowd noise = able to focus on own convo – able to detect when releveant info breaks through (name) – caputures attention Triesman’s Dual Filter Model:  Filter 1: physical: evaluate based on pitch, intensity, to find most relevant info.  Filter 2: semantic: searches meaning / relevance o Able to override physical filter b/c of its meaning. o Info imputed for attention. Stroop Task:  Congruent: colour same as word  Incongruent: colour diff from word  Effect: faster when congruent o Doesn’t require to ignore irrelevant info  Attention: not separated into meaning / not meaningful.  Controlling: actively ignore word dimension for incongruent (less stroop effect) o High congruency = more stroop effect  Automatic effects: automatically look even when trying to ignore the word (and focus on colour).  Controlled effect: actively control & ignore the word o Filters out word if focusing on colour Visual Search: Real world:  Looking for target surrounded by distractors  Set size: # items have to search through (# ppl in crowd)  Set size effect: Larger = more diffacult  Pop-Out effect: rapid visual search to easily pick out target  Conjunction search: search defined by 2 + feature (yellow shirt, red cap)  Contextual cueing: knowing something about our world to help o Looking for keys: knowing you usually put them on the table (not in the fridge). Memory:  Problems with memory metaphors: assumes stored in original form. Types of Memory:  Acquisition: what will be stored?  Storage: how?  Retrieved? Importance of Cues:  Lead to trains of memory  Encoding phase: learning  Retrieval: tested on items learnt Recall & Recognition:  Recall: generating as many as able to remember  Recognition: new / old (presented / not) Forgetting curve:  Remember initially. Increased rate of memory failure over time. Multi-Store Model: Stimuli / input  short term memory (+ rehearsal)  long term memory George Miller: chunking idea  Remember 7 +/- 2 store in short term memory o Chunked into meaningful packets Serial Position Curve: Primacy Effect:  First info = more likely to be remembered b/c most opportunity to be rehearsed.  Continuous rehearsing multiple times STM  LTM  Improving: rehearsal, probability of LTM storage, recalling at first. Middle info = least recalled Recency Effect:  Newest items replace older (middle) items  Still in STM.  Diminishing recency (making worse): causing distraction (getting info out of STM). Meaning:  Distracting right after encoding = decreased in receny effect (effecting STM)  Waiting 30seconds: recency effect maintained  Immediately recall = no change Memory Principles: Levels of Processing:  Shallow (physical char.) & deeper (semantic) Craik & Lockhart Multiple Levels of Processing during encoding:  Physical (moderate) – capital letters (worse able to remember)  Acoustic (moderate) – does word sound like ___ (better to remem)  Semantic (deeper) – does it fit in the sentence ___ (best to remem) Encoding Specificity:  Encode environment as well as all information  Same encoding environment as recalling = better ability to recall.  ― ― internal state Memory Illusions & Fluency: Loftus & False Memory:  told false memory of self long time ago – 20% believed it happened.  Implications: memory is highly constructive and able to be effected by time & own perceptions – testimonies?  After 3 days – more believed that it happened to them False Memory Implications:  Seamon’s experiment: events preformed / imagined: later recalled doing the events even if they imagined it  Meaning: memory can be mislead into confusing imagined / preformed events  Familiarity: thinking seen something before Fluency:  Those which are familiar = processed more fluently.  Ex: person on a bus – stand out b/c they’re familiar or look funny? Attribution:  Judgment typing together cause & effect  Creating causes to explain feeling of fluency – rational  Ex: seen them on bus before. Becoming Famous Overnight:  Seen name before – rated as famous / well known ―fake fame effect‖  Names produce feeling of fluency – attributed based by subject Problems with memory: Barlett’s building blocks:  Memory doesn’t exist until present situation requires us to construct a memory  Building blocks of perception / experience Use them to reconstruct something resembling past experience / something that didn’t occur PERSONALITY: UNIT 8 Approaches to Personality: Psychodynamic Approach:  Freud: internal structure of mind / way they react = determines how we feel / behave Tripartite Model:  ID: basic instinct o unconscious  Superego: moral principles (from parents / standards) o Unconscious, preconscious, some in conscious  Ego: balance between 2 o All 3 Defenses:  Protect conscious ego against anxiety from defense mechanisms.  By keeping id impulses out of conscious Repression:  Block id impulses from reaching conscious  Slips through dreams & Freudian slips Denial:  Unconscious ego prevents memory of event  Never becomes conscious Rationalization:  Unconscio
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