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Final

PSYCH 1X03 Study Guide - Final Guide: Stanford Prison Experiment, Psychopathy, Etiology

45 pages84 viewsFall 2012

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim
Study Guide
Final

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Levels of Analysis: Unit 1
Developmental Perspective:
How behaviors develop over a lifespan
Challenges when studying groups of ppl (babies, children,
special needs children).
Behaviorist Perspective:
Watson & Skinner:
Mind = black box (should not be looked into)
Visible behavior = only valid measure of psychology.
Role of environment = strong influence on behavior.
Cognitive Perspective:
Internal processes (thoughts, learning, attention)
Models = abstract representation of how mind function.
o They simplify complex processes.
Biological Perspective:
Reductionism: all behavior = biology of brain
Branches / Extensions: cognitive and behavioral
neuroscience.
Neuroimaging tools = used to examine brain (MRI- structure
focused, functional MRI change in chemistry focused. )
Evolutionary Perspective:
Looks @ influence of environmental / genetic factors on
behaviors
Looks across many generations of species.
Socio-Cultural Perspective:
Looks @ factors that influence the behavior of individual &
group
How is one’s behavior influence from the group they’re in?
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UNIT 2: RESEARCH METHODS
Scientific Method:
How to collect and analyze information
Theory: not specific (ex: energy drinks improve memory)
Hypothesis: specific what your trying to find out (students
who take energy drinks should show improved test
performances)
Research Method: how hypothesis is tested
Collect Date: taking outcomes of test
Analyze Data: understand date, trends, relationships.
Report Findings: publish in scholarly journals
Revise Theories: include new info into understanding apply
to world.
Reliability: same output with same input (step on scale many
times in a day input = produces # output not cupcakes)
Construct Validity: ability to test something it’s suppose to
test (not if: step on scale to measure IQ).
Ways To Collect Data:
Case Study:
Single Detailed examination of a particular person
Provides initial facts, doesn’t manipulate (take results given to
us)
Problems: not able to compare to others (or general
population), subjective (looking for certain support).
Correlational Studies (direct observation):
Look @ existing relationships btw pairs of variables (ex: diet
and life expectancy)
No manipulation.
Positive, negative, zero correlations measures one variable
to predict another
Correlation coefficient (1 / -1)
Problems: Cant tell cause & effect, third party variables,
difficult to explain rational of observed behaviors, subjective
interpretation.
Experiments:
Researcher makes something happen (manipulates variables)
Binary Variables: only 2 possibilities (On/off). One option =
constant
Compound Variables: variables not measured yet still could
have an effect (gender, time of day).
Problems: artificial setting (lab) & results may not translate to
real world setting, ethic / moral constraints.
Interview:
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Adv: one-one-one, behavior info which may not be able to
observe
Problems: level of comfort, un/intentional dishonesty,
memory lapse.
Questionnaire:
Adv: info on behavior which may be difficult to observe,
simple to collect from large numbers, self-report observation
(directed by self)
Problems: cant asses truthfulness, wishful thinking, memory
lapses.
Conducting Experiment:
Hypothesis: using anecdotal evidence (evidence gathered
from others / self experience).
Experiment: tool used to measure variable
o Independent Variable: manipulated by scientist
o Dependent Variable: observed as outcome (changes as
one manipulates)
Control Groups:
Experiment / control groups
Within-subject design: same subject manipulating
independent variable (have / haven’t taken drink)
o Subject to practice effect: improved performance over
time in experiment.
Between Subject Design: 2 groups (1 control) more
subjects (similar ppl btw groups not all same type of
people)
Sampling:
General group = population
Group to test = sample.
Random sample: choose ppl at random (potential bias
towards specific group)
Random Assortment: assigned ppl randomly to control /
experiment group (eliminates any bias btw groups)
Conducting an Experiment:
Subject Biases:
Placebo affect: person reacts to treatment that has no effects.
Blinding: ppl don’t know if belong to control / experiment
group
Experimenter Bias: experimenter actions promote the result
they wish to achieve.
Double Blind: experimenter / participants don’t know which
group they belong to.
Scientific Research:
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