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Final

# PSYCH 1X03 Study Guide - Final Guide: Taco Bell, Blood Sugar, Sign Language

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim
Study Guide
Final

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Psychology 1X03; Final Review
Page ! of !1 39
Psychology 1X03; Practice Quizzes (Exam Review)
(Research Methods)
1. Luc collects data on the shoe size of all the boys in his class. He finds that shoe sizes are similar,
except one very large datapoint. Which measure of central tendency should Luc use to best describe
his population?
a) Mean
b) Median
c) T-Value
d) Range
2. Nazanin is analyzing the relationship between the number of years first year McMaster undergraduate
students previously spent being classically trained on a musical instrument and the grade that they
received in the course Math 1A03. She calculated a correlation coefficient of 0.25. Which of the
following best describes the relationship between these variables according to Nazanin's results?
a) There is a weak positive correlation, where students who performed worse in math tended to have
more musical training.
b) There is a strong positive correlation, where students who performed better in math tended to have
more musical training.
c) There is a strong positive correlation, where students who performed better in math tended to have
less musical training.
d) There is a weak positive correlation, where students who performed worse in math tended to have less
musical training.
3. Which of the following is an example of the social desirability bias?
a) Toby found that his experimental group performed better on a concentration task, but he ran his
experimental group in the afternoon and his control group in the morning
b) Mac is more likely to perform well when the experimenter thinks he is smart than when the
experimenter thinks he is of average intelligence.
c) Alice selects "Neither agree nor disagree" for all options on a questionnaire because she wants to
finish quickly.
d) Gemmy is less likely to report drug use on a survey when it is done with the experimenter in the room
rather than when it is done from his home computer.
4. Which of the following variable is correctly matched with it’s definition?
a) The dependent variable is the variable manipulated by the experimenter
b) The cofounding variable is a variable other than the independent variable that affects the results
c) The independent variable is the variable being observed by the experimenter
d) The control variables are variables that must differ between all conditions.
5. What is the purpose of random assignment?
a) Random assignment allows us to eliminate experimenter bias
b) Random assignment allows us to eliminate subject bias
c) Random assignment allows us the generalize our result to the whole population being sampled from
d) Random assignment allows us to compare between different conditions of the experiment
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Psychology 1X03; Final Review
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6. What is the following example of a blind study?
a) Subjects are assigned to either the experimental or control condition based on their personal
preference, and are told to write which group they have chosen on the consent form without notifying
the experimenter.
b) Subjects are assigned to either the experimental or control condition based on their personal
preference, and report their decision directly to the experimenter.
c) Subjects are assigned to either the experimental or control condition at random by an individual other
than the experimenter.
d) Subjects are assigned to either the experimental or control condition by the experimenter, and are not
told which group they have been assigned to.
7. Which of the following indicates the strongest relation between two variables?
a) r= 0.2
b) r= -1.6
c) r=1.01
d) r=-0.8
8. Which of the following best describes a method to avoid subject bias?
a) Exposing the experimental groups to the manipulated variable, so they are aware of which condition
they are in
b) Explain the hypothesis prior to the experiment, so participants are aware of potential biases they may
have
c) Keeping the experimenter blind to conditions, to avoid participants receiving verbal cues from the
experimenter
d) Giving the control group a mock treatment, so they are unaware of which condition they are in
9. Which of the following correctly describes an experiment?
a) Experiments are used to determine the effect the manipulate variable has not he independent variables
b) Experiments are used to determine the strength of the relationship between two variables
c) Experiments utilize the correlation coefficient, which is a measure of the relatedness between two
variables
d) Experiments utilize independent variables, which describes the condition the experimenter places the
subject in.
10. Which of the following provides the best explanation as to why a p value less than 0.05 is considered
statistically significant?
a) A p value greater than 0.05 implies the independent variable had no effect on the results, and the
experimental and control groups performed similarly.
b) A p value less than 0.05 implies there is only a small chance the difference between the experimental
and control groups is due to chance.
c) A p value greater than 0.05 implies there is no difference between the experimental and control
groups.
d) A p value less than 0.05 implies there is a large difference between the experimental and control
groups.
11. Mindy is interested in testing whether those who follow a vegan diet are happier than those who do
not. She asks vegans and non-vegans to complete the Subjective Happiness Scale, and compares their
answers. Which of the following is true of Mindy's research?
a) If the vegan group is significantly happier, she can say that eating vegan makes people happier.
b) When doing a t-test, Mindy's null hypothesis is that vegans and non-vegans are similar in how happy
they believe they are.
c) Mindy’s independent variable is how happy people are
d) Mindy used random assignment since everyone from the population filled out the scale
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Psychology 1X03; Final Review
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12. Paul once heard that getting 10 hours of sleep before an exam improves test scores by 10%. He
assumes this idea must be valid because sleep helps improve attention. Which of the following best
describes Paul's theory?
a) Sleep improves attention
b) 1 hour of sleep correlates with 1% increase on an exam
c) 10 hours of sleep will improve test scores by 10%
d) 10 hours of sleep will help improve attention on exams
13. Dr. Iver wants to see if there is a relationship between the number of prescription medications taken
by patients with depression and any effects on the severity of their symptoms. Which of the following is
the independent variable?
a) Which prescription medication they are taken
b) Whether or not the patient suffers from depression
c) The severity of the patient’s symptoms
d) The number of prescription medications taken.
14. When determining statistical significance, which of the following best describes reaching a significant
result?
a) Obtaining a p value less than 0.05, meaning that the likelihood that the results were obtained by
chance is less than 5%
b) Obtaining a p value less than 0.05, meaning that the likelihood that the results were obtained by
chance is less than 1%.
c) Obtaining a p value less than 0.5, meaning that the likelihood that the results were obtained by chance
is less than 1%.
d) Obtaining a p value less than 0.5, meaning that the likelihood that the results were obtained by chance
is less than 5%.
15. Which statement regarding the various research techniques is true?
a) Questionnaires can be used to gather data that is unattainable through other means
b) Experiments do not allow for practical cause and effect conclusions
c) Case studies are interesting but provide no direct evidence for a theory
d) Direct observation is an accurate representation of people’s behaviours and intentions.
16. Which of the following statements about subject bias is the most correct?
a) Subject bias can be reduced or even prevented by making the conditions of the experiment as similar
as possible between the experimental and control groups.
b) Subject bias can be reduced or even prevented by using a between subjects design where there are
different participants in each condition.
c) Subject bias only occurs when a subject's prior knowledge consciously affects their performance in an
experiment.
d) Subject bias is when participants are aware of the expected outcome of the experiment and knowingly
alter their behaviour.
17. Which of the following spheres to the scientific method?
a) The research method is the procedure developed to test the hypothesis?
b) The control group differs from the experimental group by the dependent variable
c) After collecting data, the associated theories must be revised
d) A hypothesis is developed based on personal experience
18. What term is used for an experiment where the same participants make up each condition?
a) Random Assignment
b) Between- Subjects Design
c) Case Studies
d) Within-Subjects Design
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