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PSYCH 2AA3- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 310 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2AA3
Professor
Jennifer Ostovich
Study Guide
Final

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McMaster
PSYCH 2AA3
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 7 12/13/2016 7:26:00 AM
Information Processing Model
Sensory Input Sensory Memory (the stuff you don’t pay attention to is
lost in .5 to 3 seconds) Attention Short Term and Working Memory
(unrehearsed info lost in 10 to 15 seconds) (you are rehearsing here and
start thinking about it) info to be stored permanently Long Term
Memory (info needed to comprehend new information and also contains
techniques for processing new information)
This is the model we will be following
Understanding a New World
if no processing happens then it disappears from short term storage but
we think of the working
hard to store something in long term memory if you don’t understand it
with children there isn’t going to be a lot of memories stored in the LTM
but they are building up what is in there
Information Processing in Infants
-Piaget thought that children before substage 6 (1 ½-2 years old age):
can’t store memories, but we already know there is some evidence we
are able to make memories very young
-Memory may be present at birth, but weak
Habituation/dishabituation: some ability to store information
Classical conditioning: newborns-suggests memory: 1 and 2 day old
babies to come to lab-they rubbed sugar solution on babies lips,
pleasant. Before putting sugar solution on lips, would rub their
forehead and then give sugar water. After only a few pairing, if they
just rubbed forehead, babies would try to suck-thinking they were
going to get the sugar solution.
Memory improves with age: mobile studies: # days remembered vs.
infants age remember to kick-2 months: 3 days, 3 months: 7 days, 6
months: 3 weeks (21 days)
Reactivation experiences: do originally training with mobile, and
then at various points, she would remind them of this fun
experience. Put baby in different position (so they can’t extinguish
response): same crib, and the tester shakes the mobile-with these
reactivation experiences, these memories can last a lot longer. For
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example: 3 month old can remember training experience for about
a week. Reminding, not retraining can help with memory. 2 month
olds: they can remember this connection for 5 months after initial
exposure. 6 month olds: can remember for an extra 1 ½ years: if
reminded constantly.
What about Older Children
STM is where you hold stuff and working memory is where you work on
stuff
Processing efficiency (speed and number of bits of information we can
handle) improves with age
Short term memory capacity increases with age
Adults can remember 7 to 10 things before they stop remembering
Digit span: give people a series of numbers & repeat back-if there
are too many items-they will fail.
Letter span is the same way-unrelated letters to repeat & word
span is unrelated words you need to understand
Age 12: basically an adult for memory
Processing speed increases with age: process information EX reaction
time task
Easier to do mental math if you have knowledge of easier stuff EX
7x7+10-1 much faster to do this when you automate what 7x7 is.
Experience is going to be responsible for quick improvements we
see: Practice makes improvement
Mechanism? Neural development & experience
o Things develop so quickly because there are a lot of things
going on such as pruning the synapses then we are actually
making connections faster
o we also have myelination going on like crazy and this
insulates the neuron allowing it to transfer things quickly
o automaticity is associated with experience such as a
multiplication table makes you faster and becoming
automatic to the answers
research has shown that elementary schools who have automated things
progress far more quickly then other students who haven’t automated
things
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