PSYCH 2AA3 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Lev Vygotsky, Neuroglia, Unschooling

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Published on 18 Jun 2020
School
McMaster University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 2AA3
Quiz 1
Timmy is transitioning from preschool to kindergarten. He will meet a lot of new people and he will take the
school bus instead of being dropped off. Which of Bronfenbrenners systems is most relevant to Timmy’s
situation?
a. Mesosystem
b. Microsystem
c. Exosystem
d. Chronosystem (answer)
The term “critical period” falls under which theory?
a. Ethological Theory (answer)
b. Biological Theory
c. Maturational Theory
d. Evolutionary-Adaptation Theory
Samantha is a 2-year-old child who sees another kid at daycare pick up and play with her favourite stuffed pig.
Frustrated, Samantha is about to go and grab the toy out of the child’s hands but something stops her. What stops
Samantha?
a. The Ego (answer)
b. The teachers voice in her head saying that grabbing is naughty
c. The Super Ego
d. The Id
At which psychosocial stage would you learn to work with others?
a. Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
b. Autonomy vs. Shame and Self-Doubt
c. Industry vs. Inferiority (answer)
d. Initiative vs. Guilt
The beings of the alien planet Blugion value dances in the city center every night at the same time. They rely on
these meetings to express themselves, trade goods, and engage politically. According to Vygotsky, what would
you expect most regarding how these beings act with their children?
a. They would bring their children to the evening dance but scold them if they got in the way
b. They would teach their children how to dance (answer)
c. They wouldn’t care either way if their children attended the evening dance
d. They would make sure their children were asleep before the evening dance
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Chris is running a study with mothers and 6-year-old children. A typical study visit goes as follows: he brings the
mother-child dyad into the lab; he has the mother read over his Letter of Information and sign the Consent Form;
he has the child participant complete several tasks over the course of his hour-long study; he sends the child home
with a prize once the visit is complete. If a child gets tired or complains during the study (as they often do), Chris
often tells the child that they have to complete the tasks he has given to them, or they will not obtain their prize.
What is NOT a way that Chris could improve his study?
a. Chris should explain the study procedures to the child before beginning the study visit, and make sure they
are readily willing to take part in the study tasks
b. Chris should explain to the child that the tasks they are about to complete are long, discouraging, and that
children often get bored and restless during their completion (answer)
c. Chris should tell the child that even if they do not want to complete the tasks, they will still obtain a prize
d. Chris should try to make his study interesting and stimulating for his child participants to complete
Tommy wants to administer a self-report test to his students assessing his skill and likeability as a professor
during the first week and last week of classes. He plans to use this information as an indicator of his job
performance. Questions include “How happy are you feeling right now?” and “Are you excited to learn today?”
He gives this test to 3 of his classes, and finds that by the end of term, the cross-term correlation values for each
class were 0.8, 0.7, and 0.7. He is thrilled! What is probably true about Tommy’s measurement?
a. His test was neither reliable, nor valid
b. His test was too high in reliability
c. His test was high in validity, but low in reliability
d. His test was reliable, but not valid (answer)
Sally wants to code some videos she has taken of young children playing together in a sandbox. She wants to
look at measures of Cooperative Play, Positive/Negative Affect, and Aggression. She asks 2 students to help her
code the videos. She meets with them only after assigning them the same 3 videos to code each, in order to
reduce her own bias and influence. After they have each coded their videos, she has reliability values of 0.3, 0.5,
and 0.4 for each behaviour of interest. What does this mean, and what is the most likely explanation for these
values?
a. Practice effects are above an acceptable threshold, because the coders were showing an expectancy effect
b. The correlation coefficient is below an acceptable threshold, because the observers were not blind
c. The correlation coefficient is below an acceptable threshold, because observer influence affected each
observers codes
d. Inter-rater reliability is below an acceptable threshold, because operational definitions were not clear enough
(answer)
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Rayna has a mother-child dyad come into the lab to each complete a series of tasks relevant to her project. She has
the child complete a Birthday Speech task (to evaluate shyness), and also has the mother report on the child’s
shyness using a questionnaire. Later, a discrepancy is revealed: behavioural coding shows the child to be
extremely shy, but the mothers questionnaire responses report the child to be very low on shyness. What is NOT
a potential way to avoid discrepancies like this in the future?
a. Limit the use of behavioural coding, in order to evaluate parent-reports without confusion (answer)
b. Ask the parent about shyness in several different questionnaires, worded in different ways
c. Using reverse-coded items in the parent questionnaire to avoid response bias
d. Ask the child to self-report on shyness
Imagine that in the days following birth, all human beings begin to mimic and adopt the behaviours of the first
moving animal that they see. Lilly’s mother acts like a dog, but Lilly sees a cat first and begins to display feline
behaviours. What best explains Lilly’s situation?
a. Her development reflects the Biological Perspective, where she is an active child and influenced by “nature”
b. Her development reflects the Learning Perspective, where she is an active child and influenced by “nurture”
c. Her development reflects the Learning Perspective, where she is a passive child and influenced by “nurture”
d. Her development reflects the Biological Perspective, where she is a passive child and influenced by
“nature” (answer)
Quiz 2
What part of the neuron is most important for speed of information transmission?
a. Axon
b. Glia
c. Dendrites
d. Myelin
e. Both glia and myelin (answer)
f. Both dendrites and myelin
Basic emotions are accompanied by which of the following:
a. always subjective feeling but only sometimes physiological change and overt behaviour
b. subjective feeling, physiological change, and overt behaviour (answer)
c. broadly positive or broadly negative subjective feeling and physiological change
d. reflexive response to bodily state, overt behaviour, and subjective feeling
e. social smile, physiological change, and subjective feeling
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Document Summary

He will meet a lot of new people and he will take the school bus instead of being dropped off. Which of bronfenbrenner"s systems is most relevant to timmy"s situation: mesosystem, microsystem, exosystem, chronosystem (answer) The term critical period falls under which theory: ethological theory (answer, biological theory, maturational theory, evolutionary-adaptation theory. Samantha is a 2-year-old child who sees another kid at daycare pick up and play with her favourite stuffed pig. Frustrated, samantha is about to go and grab the toy out of the child"s hands but something stops her. Samantha: the ego (answer, the teacher"s voice in her head saying that grabbing is naughty, the super ego, the id. At which psychosocial stage would you learn to work with others: basic trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame and self-doubt c. d. The beings of the alien planet blugion value dances in the city center every night at the same time.

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