PSYCH 2C03 Study Guide - Final Guide: Snob, Groupthink, Deindividuation

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Social Psychology Final Exam Review
Textbook Notes
Chapter 3- Self and Self Esteem
Automatic Thinking:
- thinking that is nonconcious, unintentional, involuntary, and effortless
Schemas:
- mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the social world
around themes or subjects and that influence the information people notice, think
about and remember
- stereotypes: schemas about a race or gender
Accessibility:
- the extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of people’s minds
and are therefore likely to be used when making judgments about the social world
- schemas can be accessible for 3 reasons:
opast experience (eg: alcoholism in the family man on bus is alcoholic,
mental illness in family man on bus is mentally ill) (eg: black people
more likely to interpret actions as discriminatory because of past
experience)
othey are related to a current goal (eg: you are studying for a test about
mental illness- infor becomes temporarily accessible man on bus is
mentally ill)
orecent experiences/priming (eg: right before you got on the bus, you were
reading One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest- mental illness at the forefront
of your mind man on bus is mentally ill)
Priming
- the process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema,
trait, or concept
- thoughts have to be both accessible and applicable to act as primes
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy:
- the case whereby people have an expectation about what another person is like,
which influences how they act toward that person, which, in turn, causes that
person to behave consistently with their original expectations
- 1) you have an expectancy or social theory about the target person (eg: hes a
snob)
- 2) you behave toward the target in a way that is consistent with your theory or
expectancy (eg: I’m not going to say hello I’m just going to walk by)
- 3) the target person responds to your behaviour in a similar way (eg: he didn’t say
hello, what a jerk! Well then I won’t say hello either)
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- 4) you see the target’s behaviour as proof that your expectation was right, you
don’t realize the role you played in causing the targets response (eg: I knew I was
right. He is a snob!”
Judgmental Heuristics:
- mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and efficiently
Availability Heuristic:
- a mental shortcut whereby people base a judgment on the ease with which they
can bring something to mind
- eg: someone you haven’t spent much time with, and you haven’t gotten the
chance to form a schema about them, asks if they are aggressive, if you can easily
think of circumstances when they were aggressive you say yes, if you can easily
think of circumstances when they were not aggressive, you say no
- doctors use availability heuristic- can be good (diagnosis of Nicoles AIP because
doctor had wrote a book about diseases of historical figures that included a
chapter that mentioned AIP) or bad (lots of people diagnosed with pneumonia-
another patient came in a got diagnosed with that, but it turned out to be
something else)
- people use availability heuristic to judge themselves (eg: assertiveness)
Representativeness Heuristic:
- a mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it
is to a typical case
- eg: Lyne is similar to my conception of a typical Quebecker- she must be from
Quebec
Base Rate Information:
- information about the frequency of members of different categories in the
population
- eg: Lyne goes to University of Alberta, Alberta universities have more in-province
than out-province students, she must be from Alberta
- representativeness heuristic is used more
- in the case of Lyne, it would be wise to use the base rate (not many people from
Quebec go to school in Alberta, there are many people in Alberta who speak
French and dress nice and enjoy French food)
Controlled Thinking:
- thinking that is conscious, intentional, voluntary and effortful
- can only think about one thing at a time
- can turn it on or off, people are aware that they are thinking
Counterfactual Thinking:
- mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have
been
- “if only I had studied for that test- I would have gotten a better grade”
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- more likely when we “just missed” avoiding a negative event
oeg: 2 points from passing the test, missed a flight by 5 minutes instead of
30
obronze medal happier than silver- not as likely to think about how they
almost won/ ways they could have
- people feel greater sympathy for those in near miss situations
- more counterfactual thinking leads to greater distress
- leads to self-improvement if good, self-enhancement (exception: perfectionists)
Thought Suppression:
- the attempt to avoid thinking about something a person would prefer to forget
- automatic- monitoring process: searches for evidence that the unwanted thought is
trying to intrude on consciousness
- controlled- operating process: effortful, conscious attempt at distracting oneself
from the thought- finding other things to think about
- if the controlled doesn’t do its job (preoccupied or tired- cognitive load) , a state
of hyperaccessibility occurs- we the thought makes its way into conscious thought
and is even bigger- the automatic thought keeps pointing out the thought (eg:
parents with McDonalds)
Overconfidence Barrier:
- the barrier that results when people have too much confidence in the accuracy of
their judgments; peoples judgments are usually not as correct as they think they
are
- address overconfidence directly, teach people how to reason correctly
Analytic Thinking Style:
- a type of thinking in which people focus on the properties of objects without
considering their surrounding context; common in Western culture
Holistic Thinking Style:
- a type of thinking in which people focus on the overall context, particularly the
ways in which objects relate to one another; common in East Asian cultures like
China , Japan, Korea
Chapter 5- Self and Self Esteem
Self-Concept:
- the contents of the self; that is, our knowledge about who we are
- “known”
Self-Awareness:
- the act of thinking about ourselves
- “knower”
Self-Regulatory Resource Model:
- self-regulation is a limited resource, like a muscle that gets tired
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