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Religious Studies 1B06 Mid-Term Review (Definitions).docx

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Religious Studies
Carterand La Rose

Religion Mid-term Review Definitions: Abu Bakr  Father-in-law of Muhammad and following Muhammad’s death he became the first Caliph (ruler of Islamic Ummah)  Continued exercising the same political and administrative functions as Muhammad  Entitled Al-Siddiq meaning “The Truthful” The Analects  Entitled Analects of Confucius, is a collection of sayings, reports and ideas attributed to the Chinese philosopher and his contemporaries Avatar  Hinduism: deliberate descent of a deity/ Supreme Being to Earth  Descent of God in human and other abnormal forms The Bhagavad Gita, means “Song of God”  Considered “Veda (ancient Hindu scripture) of Vedas” because it is the essence of Vedic knowledge  Spoken by Krishna, is the eternal message of spiritual wisdom from ancient India o Guide to Hindu theology and a practical guide to life  Stating that the knowledge of Yoga was the first instructions to mankind at the beginning of their existence The Buddha means Siddhartha Gautama  The “Awakened” for he who fully understands the Four Noble Truths and is enlightened from ignorance  32 great marks on his body prophesized to be king or religious leader  4 Sights; old man, sick man, dead man, ascetic  Acts as a guide for those who wish to become enlightened and reach a state of higher understanding Confucius  Philosopher/exemplar of goodness who emphasized morality, political correctness, justice and sincerity  Principles were influential to Chinese practice, tradition and belief Constantine  Emperor  Made Christianity a legitimate practice in the Roman Empire  Helped establish the power and authority within the church The Daodejing  Record of the Zhou Dynasty  Influential towards legalism, Confucianism and Chinese Buddhism Dharma  Cosmic law and order  Prescribed duty/proper conduct/law dependent on one’s status, age & gender Diaspora  Refers to the dispersion of Jews outside of Israel from the 6th century when they were exiled to Babylonia The Four Noble Truths 1. All life entails suffering 2. The cause of suffering is desire 3. Removing desire removes suffering 4. The way for removing desire/suffering is to follow the Eightfold Path  Way to achieve enlightenment and become a Buddha Guru Gobind Singh  Founded the Khalsa in 1699, initiating a distinctive Sikh identity  Declared Adi Granth as successor Guru Nanak  One
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